单双中特网:GMAT备考 | 秒破GMAT逻辑题“数字vs比例/变化率”

来源:SOHU  [  作者:申友留学   ]  责编:张华  |  侵权/违法举报

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原标题:GMAT备考 | 秒破GMAT逻辑题“数字vs比例/变化率”

最近很多同学说:“M少女,我做逻辑题遇到了上升下降的问题,总觉得绕不明白!”

我想说的是:这种考察数学思维的题目正是财商思维考点的一个重要体现,所以今天就给大家讲讲我们常在逻辑题中遇到的考察数学思维的典型题目。

逻辑题的数学思维最??嫉木褪鞘趾捅壤?变化率的关系了。

大家一定要明确一点:

增幅大不代表这个数就大,降幅大不代表这个数就??;

比例上升/下降不等于数字上升/下降;

必须考虑基数!

举个例子,小钾今年长胖了10%,小钠今年长胖了5%,我能说小钾比小钠更容易压坏一个秤吗?!不行啊,因为你不知道他俩原本多重。

说白了就是,变瘦了不等于瘦;变胖了不等于胖;赚了钱不等于有钱,亏了钱不等于没钱,这种事情还是要看基础的。

这种例子其实在逻辑当中经常出现,只是换上了英语的美丽包装,加上条件和结论的说法上绕了些弯,以及例子可能没有那么生活化,大家就认不出来了。

The violent crime rate (number of violent crimes per 1,000 residents) in Meadowbrook is 60 percent higher now than it was four years ago. The corresponding increase for Parkdale is only 10 percent. These figures support the conclusion that residents of Meadowbrook are more likely to become victims of violent crime than are residents of Parkdale.

The argument above is flawed because it fails to take into account

A changes in the population density of both Parkdale and Meadowbrook over the past four years

B how the rate of population growth in Meadowbrook over the past four years compares to the corresponding rate for Parkdale

C the ratio of violent to nonviolent crimes committed during the past four years in Meadowbrook and Parkdale

D the violent crime rates in Meadowbrook and Parkdale four years ago

E how Meadowbrook"s expenditures for crime prevention over the past four years compare to Parkdale"s expenditures

条件:M地比P地过去四年暴力犯罪增长率高

结论:M地的人更容易成为暴力犯罪受害者

这里的结论进行了“伪装”。我们解读一下结论,更容易成为暴利犯罪受害者,其实就意味着暴力犯罪率更高。

所以这个推理过程简化以后可以理解为:由犯罪率增长得多,推出犯罪率高。

这样漏洞就很明显了。条件里只说过过去四年的“增长率”高,所以要看现在暴力犯罪率多少的话,我们还需要知道四年前两地的暴力犯罪率,因此D就是答案。

In the United States, of the people who moved from one state to another when they retired, the percentage who retired to Florida has decreased by three percentage points over the past ten years. Since many local businesses in Florida cater to retirees, these declines are likely to have a noticeably negative economic effect on these businesses and therefore on the economy of Florida.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument given?

A People who moved from one state to another when they retired moved a greater distance, on average, last year than such people did ten years ago.

B People were more likely to retire to North Carolina from another state last year than people were ten years ago.

C The number of people who moved from one state to another when they retired has increased significantly over the past ten years.

D The number of people who left Florida when they retired to live in another state was greater last year than it was ten years ago.

E Florida attracts more people who move from one state to another when they retire than does any other state.

条件:退休后去别处养老的人中,去Florida的比例下降了

结论:Florida当地经济会因此受影响

同样,这个结论也是经过“伪装”的。当地经济受影响,应该是老人的人数下降才会导致的结果。

所以这个推理过程简化以后可以理解为:由去F地的人的比例下降,推出去F地的人数下降。

这样漏洞又很明显了。如果要证明比例下降必定导致人数下降,有一个前提就是退休后去别处养老的总人数不变,如果总人数增加,那么即使去F地的比例下降,人数也未必下降,因此C就是答案。

Fast-food restaurants make up 45 percent of all restaurants in Canatria. Customers at these restaurants tend to be young; in fact, studies have shown that the older people get, the less likely they are to eat in fast-food restaurants, Since the average age of the Canatrian population is gradually rising and will continue to do so, the number of fast-food restaurants is likely Jo decrease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A Fast-food restaurants in Canatria are getting bigger, so each one can serve more customers.

B Some older people eat at fast-food restaurants more frequently than the average young person.

C Many people who rarely eat in fast-food restaurants nevertheless eat regularly in restaurants.

D The overall population of Canatria is growing steadily.

E As the population of Canatria gets older, more people are eating at home.

条件:只有年轻人喜欢去快餐店,而平均年龄在上升

结论:快餐店会减少

这道题条件和结论都不是很直接。我们解读一下条件和结论:平均年龄上升,也就是年轻人的比例下降;而快餐店减少却是基于年轻人的人数减少的结果。

所以这个推理过程简化以后变成:因为年轻人比例减少,所以年轻人数量减少。

很明显,在不知道人口基数是否变化的情况下这个结论是不能得出的,如果总人口上升,那么即使平均年龄变大,即年轻人比例降低,年轻人的人数还是在增加的,那么快餐店也不会减少,因此看似无关的D其实就是答案。

看了三道题应该发现GMAT逻辑题非常喜欢考察“数字vs比例/变化率”这样的问题,下次再碰到这样的问题,作为一个有数学思维的人,应该首先给自己一个灵魂拷问:我变美/帅了就等于我很美/帅吗?这样我相信这类题再也难不倒你了。

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