057期单双中特:100篇雅思阅读精读汇总基础篇

来源:SOHU  [  作者:超级学长语培中心   ]  责编:王强  |  侵权/违法举报

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原标题: 100篇雅思阅读精读汇总基础篇

Passage one(The only way to travel is on foot)

The past ages of man have all been carefully labeled by anthropologists. Deions like ‘ Palaeolithic Man’, ‘Neolithic Man’, etc., neatly sum up whole periods. When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label ‘Legless Man’. Histories of the time will go something like this: ‘in the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early age. There were lifts and escalators in all large buildings to prevent people from walking. This situation was forced upon earth dwellers of that time because of miles each day. But the surprising thing is that they didn’t use their legs even when they went on holiday. They built cable railways, ski-lifts and roads to the top of every huge mountain. All the beauty spots on earth were marred by the presence of large car parks. ’

The future history books might also record that we were deprived of the use of our eyes. In our hurry to get from one place to another, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives you a bird’s-eye view of the world – or even less if the wing of the aircraft happens to get in your way. When you travel by car or train a blurred image of the countryside constantly smears the windows. Car drivers, in particular, are forever obsessed with the urge to go on and on: they never want to stop. Is it the lure of the great motorways, or what? And as for sea travel, it hardly deserves mention. It is perfectly summed up in the words of the old song: ‘I joined the navy to see the world, and what did I see? I saw the sea.’ The typical twentieth-century traveler is the man who always says ‘I’ve been there. ’ You mention the remotest, most evocative place-names in the world like El Dorado, Kabul, Irkutsk and someone is bound to say ‘I’ve been there’ – meaning, ‘I drove through it at 100 miles an hour on the way to somewhere else. ’

When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time looking forward to arriving at some other place. But actual arrival, when it is achieved, is meaningless. You want to move on again. By traveling like this, you suspend all experience; the present ceases to be a reality: you might just as well be dead. The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the present. For him traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his body. At the end of his journey he feels a delicious physical weariness. He knows that sound. Satisfying sleep will be his: the just reward of all true travellers.

1、Anthorpologists label nowaday’s men ‘Legless’ because

A people forget how to use his legs.

B people prefer cars, buses and trains.

C lifts and escalators prevent people from walking.

D there are a lot of transportation devices.

2、Travelling at high speed means

A people’s focus on the future.

B a pleasure.

C satisfying drivers’ great thrill.

D a necessity of life.

3、Why does the author say ‘we are deprived of the use of our eyes’ ?

A People won’t use their eyes.

B In traveling at high speed, eyes become useless.

C People can’t see anything on his way of travel.

D People want to sleep during travelling.

4、What is the purpose of the author in writing this passage?

A Legs become weaker.

B Modern means of transportation make the world a small place.

C There is no need to use eyes.

D The best way to travel is on foot.

5. What does ‘a bird’s-eye view’ mean?

A See view with bird’s eyes.

B A bird looks at a beautiful view.

C It is a general view from a high position looking down.

D A scenic place.

VOCABULARY

1. Palaeolithic 旧石器时代的

2. Neolithic 新石器时代的

3. escalator 自动电梯,自动扶梯

4. ski-lift 载送滑雪者上坡的装置

5. mar 损坏,毁坏

6. blur 模糊不清,朦胧

7. smear 涂,弄脏,弄模糊(尤指画面、轮廓等)

8. evocative 引起回忆的,唤起感情的

9. El Dorado (由当时西班牙征服者想象中的南美洲)黄金国,宝山,富庶之乡

10. Kabul 喀布尔(阿富汗首都)

11. Irkutsk 伊尔库茨克(原苏联亚洲城市)

难句译注与答案详解

The only way to travel is on foot 旅游的唯一方法是走路

难句译注

1. Air travel gives you a bird’s-eye view of the world – or even if the wing of the aircraft happens to get in your way.

【参考译文】飞机旅行,你只可俯视世界――如果机翼碰巧挡住了你的视线,就看得更少了。

2. When you travel by car or train a blurred image of the country-side constantly smears the windows.

【参考译文】如果乘车或火车旅行,郊外模糊朦胧的景象不断地掠过窗口。

写作方法与文章大意

文章以因果写作方法,写出了由于种种现代化交通设施、人们不需用脚走路,甚至也不需要用眼看景,出门就坐汽车、公交车、地铁、飞机……,车、机速度飞快,外边的景物难以看清,最终导致人们忘记用脚、用眼成为“无脚之人”。一切都经历不到。作者建议最佳的旅游方法是徒步――经历现实。

答案详解

1. A 人们忘了用脚。答案在第一段:人类学家把以往年代的人们分别标上旧石器时代、新石器时代人,等等。干脆利落地总结了一个时期。当他们转向20世纪,他们肯定会标上“无脚的人”。因为在20世纪,人们忘了如何用脚走路。男人女人早年外出就坐车、公共汽车、火车。大楼里由电梯、自动扶梯,不需要人们走路。即使度假期间,他们也不用脚。他们筑有缆车道、滑雪载车和路直通山顶。所有的风景旅游区都有大型的汽车停车场。

B 人们喜欢汽车、公交车、火车等。 C 电梯、自动扶梯制止人们走路。 D 有许多交通运输工具。

2. A 人们的注意力在未来。见最后一段第一句话:当你高速旅行,现在等于零,你主要生活在未来,因为你大部分时间盯在前面到达的某个地方。真到了,又没有意义了,你还要再向前进。

B 是一种欢乐。 C 满足司机强烈的渴望。第二段中提及死机醉心于开车、不停车但不是快速前进着眼于未来。 D 生活的需要。这一条在第一段中提及这种情况是因为他们那异常的生活方法强加给时代的居民。这是指不用脚走路,而用一切代步器――交通运输工具,不是开快车。

3. C 人们在旅行途中什么都见不到。答案在第二段,由一地转向另一地,路上你什么都没有见到。乘飞机你只能俯视世界,火车,汽车,只见外界朦胧景象掠过窗子。海上旅游,只见到海?!拔业焦抢铩贝嘶昂寰褪恰拔乙砸恍∈币话儆⒗镌谌ツ衬车胤绞本抢铩?。正因为如此,作者指出将来的历史书上会记录下:我们被剥夺了眼睛的应用。

A 人们不愿用眼睛。 B 在高速旅行中,眼睛没有用了。 D 旅行中,人们想睡觉。

4. D 旅行的最佳方式是走路。文章第一段、第二段分别讲述了旅行可不用脚、不用眼等情况。第三段,在讲述了人们只知向前向前,一切经历都停滞,现实不再是现实,还不如死的好。而用脚走路的旅行者总是生活再现实,对他来说旅行和到达是一回事,他一步一步走到某地,他用眼睛、耳朵,以至整个身体去体验现在时刻、旅行终点,他感到全身舒坦愉悦的疲劳,美美享受满足的酣睡;一切真正旅行者的真实报偿。这一段就是作者写文章的目的――走路是旅行的最佳方式。

A 脚变得软弱无力。 B 现代交通工具把世界变小。 C 没有必要用眼睛。

5. C 从高出向下看的景致:俯视。

A 用鸟的眼睛看景点。 B 鸟在看美景。 D 风景点。

Passage two (Vicious and Dangerous Sports Should be Banned by Law)

When you think of the tremendous technological progress we have made, it’s amazing how little we have developed in other respects. We may speak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they relished the orgies of slaughter that went on in their arenas. We may despise them because they mistook these goings on for entertainment. We may forgive them condescendingly because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no better. But are our feelings of superiority really justified? Are we any less blood-thirsty? Why do boxing matches, for instance, attract such universal interest? Don’t the spectators who attend them hope they will see some violence? Human beings remains as bloodthirsty as ever they were. The only difference between ourselves and the Romans is that while they were honest enough to admit that they enjoyed watching hungey lions tearing people apart and eating them alive, we find all sorts of sophisticated arguments to defend sports which should have been banned long age; sports which are quite as barbarous as, say, public hangings or bearbaiting.

It really is incredible that in this day and age we should still allow hunting or bull-fighting, that we should be prepared to sit back and watch two men batter each other to pulp in a boxing ring, that we should be relatively unmoved by the sight of one or a number of racing cars crashing and bursting into flames. Let us not deceive ourselves. Any talk of ‘the sporting spirit’ is sheer hypocrisy. People take part in violent sports because of the high rewards they bring. Spectators are willing to pay vast sums of money to see violence. A world heavyweight championship match, for instance, is front page news. Millions of people are disappointed if a big fight is over in two rounds instead of fifteen. They feel disappointment because they have been deprived of the exquisite pleasure of witnessing prolonged torture and violence.

Why should we ban violent sports if people enjoy them so much? You may well ask. The answer is simple: they are uncivilized. For centuries man has been trying to improve himself spiritually and emotionally – admittedly with little success. But at least we no longer tolerate the sight madmen cooped up in cages, or public floggings of any of the countless other barbaric practices which were common in the past. Prisons are no longer the grim forbidding places they used to be. Social welfare systems are in operation in many parts of the world. Big efforts are being made to distribute wealth fairly. These changes have come about not because human beings have suddenly and unaccountably improved, but because positive steps were taken to change the law. The law is the biggest instrument of social change that we have and it may exert great civilizing influence. If we banned dangerous and violent sports, we would be moving one step further to improving mankind. We would recognize that violence is degrading and unworthy of human beings.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s opinion of nowadays’ human beings is

A. not very high. B. high.

C. contemptuous. D. critical.

2. The main idea of this passage is

A. vicious and dangerous sports should be banned by law.

B. people are willing to pay vast sums money to see violence.

C. to compare two different attitudes towards dangerous sports.

D. people are bloodthirsty in sports.

3. That the author mentions the old Romans is

A. To compare the old Romans with today’s people.

B. to give an example.

C. to show human beings in the past know nothing better.

D. to indicate human beings are used to bloodthirsty.

4. How many dangerous sports does the author mention in this passage?

A. Three. B. Five.

C. Six. D. Seven.

5. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is

A. that, by banning the violent sports, we human beings can improve our selves.

B. that, by banning the dangerous sports, we can improve the law.

C. that we must take positive steps to improve social welfare system.

D. to show law is the main instrument of social change.

Vocabulary

1. relish 从……获得乐处,享受

2. orgy 狂欢,放纵

3. arena 竞技场,活动或斗争的场所

4. blood-thirsty 残忍的,嗜血的

5. bear-baiting 逗熊游戏

6. bull-fight 斗牛

7. batter 猛击,连续地猛打/捶,乱打

8. pulp 成纸浆,成软块

9. burst into flames 突然燃烧起来/着火

10. grim 令人窒息的,简陋的

11. coop up 把……关起来

难句译注

1. bear-baiting 逗熊游戏。这是一种十六、十七世纪流行于英国的游戏――驱狗去咬绑着的熊,很残忍,后被禁止。

2. …two men batter each other to pulp in the boxing ring.

【结构简析】batter one to pulp = beat one to a pulp 狠揍某人,打瘫某人

【参考译文】两个人在拳击场内彼此狠揍,知道一个人被打倒在地,爬不起来。

3. …unmoved by the sight of one or a number of racing cars crashing and bursting into flames.

【参考译文】眼见一辆或多辆赛车相互撞击,突然烧起来而无动于衷。

4. A world heavy weight championship match is front page news.

【参考译文】世界重量级冠军赛总是头版头条新闻。

写作方法与文章大意

作者采取先对比、后分析的写作手法。先是今人和古罗马人对暴虐体育上对此两者都欣赏。后者坦率成人“欣赏暴力体育”,前者施以各种接口、实际都是嗜血成性者。第二段进一步剖析今人欣赏暴虐体育的种种实例,最后指出改善“暴虐”的根本嗜为改善法律采取积极的步骤,法律才能施以巨大的文明影响,否则人类很难改变。

答案详解

1. A. 不太高。文章一开始就点出科技巨大进步,而其他方面进展很少。人们以轻蔑的口气谈及可怜的古罗马人,因为他们欣赏竞技场上的屠杀。我们轻视他们,因为他们把这些屠杀视为娱乐。我们可以降阶/屈尊地谅解他们,因为他们生活在2000年前,显然,对好的东西不知道。在这里作者反问,我们的优越感是否正确呢?我们的嗜血性是不是少一些?为什么拳击比赛吸引那么许多人?在场的观赏者(观众)是不是也希望看到一些暴力呢?结论是:人类和过去一样残忍。唯一的不同点在于古罗马人很诚实,他们承认他们欣赏观看饥饿的狮子把人撕碎,活生生吃掉,而我们会找出各种精辟的理由来保卫早该制止的运动。第二段举出具体例子,如斗牛、拳击中把人打瘫在地、车赛中,车子碰撞起火,人们就坐在那里观看欣赏,参赛者是为了高报酬,观众付出大笔钱财是为了看到暴力。作者指出任何体育精神的说法纯粹是虚伪。如果一场打比赛(世界重量级冠军赛),两轮而不是十五轮就告结束,成千上百万人们会感到失望――这些都证明人的卑下,不文明。这两段似乎也证明作者的观点应该是C项――蔑视的。但在第三段谈及,好几个世纪以来,人们一直试图在精神上和情感上改善自己,又得承认不怎么成功??芍辽傥颐遣辉偃萑谭枞私烙诹?,当众鞭挞,以及其他许多过去普遍存在的野蛮行径。监狱也不再是过去那种令人窒息的禁锢之地,社会福利制度在全世界许多地方推行。在财富公平分配上也作了很大的努力。这些变化的出现不是因为人突然改善,而是在改变法律上采取了 积极的步骤。如果我们禁止危险的暴力体育项目,那么我们在改善人类方面又前进了一步。我们会认识暴力是人类的堕落和卑下(人类不应有的)。从这段来看,作者对人类还抱有希望,不是很蔑视。所以选A项。

2. A. 法律应禁止堕落而又危险的体育项目。见第一题注释。作者从古罗马人欣赏残忍的体育项目说起,点出现代人也是嗜血成性,喜欢暴力体育项目。这是不文明,是堕落。必须制止,而法律是我们社会改革最强大的工具,它可应用,发挥强大的文明影响(第三段倒数第三句)

B. 人们愿意支付巨大款项来观看暴力。这是作者说明“嗜血成性”的具体内容之一。C. 对比对危险体育项目不同的态度。这里没有对比。D.人类嗜血成性。这是作者认为人们为什么欣赏危险残忍体育项目的根源。

3. D. 人们在体育上习惯于“嗜血成性”,过去是,现在仍然是,不同点只是前者坦直承认,后者婉转掩饰。见第一题注释。

A. 把古罗马人和现代人对比。这项没有说明对比什么。B. 给出一个例子。太抽象。C. 说明过去人类不太知道更美好的东西,这两项都没有到位。

4. B. 5个。作者提到⑴逗熊游戏;⑵斗牛;⑶车赛;⑷拳击;⑸人狮斗。至于当众鞭挞和绞刑不能称作体育活动。

5. A. 通过制止野蛮体育项目,我们能改善人类自身。这在第三段讲的最透彻,见第一题和第二题注释。

B. 通过制止野蛮体育活动,我们能改善法律,不完全对。作者明确指出要用法律来禁止野蛮体育项目。C. 我们必须采取积极步骤来改善社会福利体制。D. 去表明法律是社会变革的主要工具。

Passage three(Advertisers Perform a Useful Service to the Community)

Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they’re always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. ‘It’s iniquitous,’ they say, ‘that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don’t they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it’s the consumer who pays…’

The poor old consumer! He’d have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn’t create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc., from an advertisement.

Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are, too! Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway byelaws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper? A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities.

We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price!

Another thing we mustn’t forget is the ‘small ads.’ which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community! Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the ‘hatch, match and dispatch’ column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or ‘agony’ column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is!

1. What is main idea of this passage?

A. Advertisement.

B. The benefits of advertisement.

C. Advertisers perform a useful service to communities.

D. The costs of advertisement.

2. The attitude of the author toward advertisers is

A. appreciative.

B. trustworthy.

C. critical.

D. dissatisfactory.

3. Why do the critics criticize advertisers?

A. Because advertisers often brag.

B. Because critics think advertisement is a “waste of money”.

C. Because customers are encouraged to buy more than necessary.

D. Because customers pay more.

4. Which of the following is Not True?

A. Advertisement makes contribution to our pockets and we may know everything.

B. We can buy what we want.

C. Good quality products don’t need to be advertised.

D. Advertisement makes our life colorful.

5. The passage is

A. Narration.

B. Deion.

C. Criticism.

D. Argumentation.

Vocabulary

1. come in for ( sth. ) 是某事物的对象,吸引(某事物),获得

2. flair 天资,天分

3. iniquitous 极邪恶的,极不公正的

4. drab 单调的,乏味的

5. subsist 活下去,生存下去,维持下去

6. hatch 孵化(指生孩子)

7. match 匹配,婚姻

8. dispatch 派遣,发送

9. agony 极大痛苦,煎熬

10. agony column (报刊中关于个人疑难问题征询意见的)读者来信专栏

难句译注

1. Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they’re always coming in for criticism.

【参考译文】广告商总是雄心勃勃(想得很大),也许这就是为什么他们老挨批评。

2. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion.

【参考译文】他们的批评者似乎对他们很气愤,因为他们在自我抬高/标榜上很有天分。

3. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offer such deep insight into human nature.

【参考译文】报纸任何其他栏目都难以提供如此有趣的文章,或提供对人性的内涵如此深刻的洞察。

4. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is.

【参考译文】这是广告中最佳的广告。

写作方法与文章大意

文章以因果、对比的手法写出有没有广告的后果及广告的真正作用。文章首先指出广告商遭批评的原因:广告商夸大和人们认为广告浪费钱财、商品价格就搞;然后作者以有无广告的后果突出其功能,没有广告,商品价更高,生活单调、乏味。有了广告,商品价低,生活丰富多彩,人们获取各种信息。

答案详解

1. C. 广告对社会的服务很有用。作者从三方面来叙述广告作用:第二段点出如果广告不为产品开辟广大的市场,我们就得付出很多钱,正是因为大量的广告费用,消费者的商品才会那么便宜。广告除销售商品外,其重要的功能在通知/告诉信息,有关家用商品的许多只是来自广告,还有新产品的介绍。

第三段讲了美化环境功能。如果火车站的墙上和报上没有广告,那会怎么样。一幅悦人心目,机智的广告将改变一切。

第四段讲了它为我们省钱:别忘了广告对我们口袋作出积极的贡献。报纸、电台、电视台公司没有这笔收入很难生存。我们的报纸,我们付给很少,或者说,我们能享受那么多的节目完全是因为广告商花的钱。如果要我们付报纸的全价,那我们要花多少钱!

最后一段讲了各种专栏的功能。人们可以在这些栏目找工作、买卖房子、宣布婚丧嫁娶信息。这些都围着一个中心:广告对社会服务的有用性。

A. 广告。太笼统。B. 广告之优点。文章不是讲优点,而是讲服务于社会的功能。D. 广告费用。

2. A. 欣赏/赞赏。从上述注释也可推知是A项。最重要的,作者提出种种功能,是为了反驳第一段内提到的论点:完全是非生产企业每年吸收几百万镑,这说明这些大公司利润有多高。最重要的是消费者付的广告费等。反驳更说明了A项对。

B. 值得信任。 C. 批评。 D. 不满意。

3. A. 因为广告商常常爱吹,。见难句译注1.。

B. 因为批评者认为广告浪费钱。 C. 因为广告促使消费者购买不必要的东西。 D. 因为消费者支付更多。

4. C. 优质产品不需要广告。一切产品都需要广告,新产品、老产品都需要。

A. 广告对我们的口袋作出贡献。 B. 我们可以买到我们所需的。 D. 广告使我们生活丰富多彩。这三条都提到也是真实的。

5. C. 文章一开始就提到对广告的批评,然后作者以对比的手法说明其功能。

A. 叙事。B. 描写。 D. 议论。

Passage four(preface)

Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.

This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or – independently of any course – simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.

We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populate it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far form being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human race equally.

We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime rather than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.

1. According to the passage, ‘scientific subculture’ means

[A] cultural groups that are formed by scientists.

[B] people whose knowledge of science is very limited.

[C] the scientific community.

[D] people who make good contribution to science.

2. We need to know something about the structure and operation of science because

[A] it is not easy to understand the things that excite and frustrate scientists.

[B] Science affects almost every aspect of our life.

[C] Scientists live in a specific subculture.

[D] It is easier to understand general characteristics of science.

3. The book mentioned in this passage is written for readers who

[A] are intelligent college students and lay person who do not know much about science.

[B] are good at producing various gadgets.

[C] work in a storehouse of dried facts.

[D] want to have a superficial understanding of science.

4. According to this passage,

[A] English is a sexist language.

[B] only in the scientific world is the role of women increasing rapidly.

[C] women are making significant contributions to eliminating the inadequacy of our language.

[D] male nouns or pronouns should not be used to refer to scientists.

5. This passage most probably is

[A] a book review.

[B] the preface of a book.

[C] the post of a book.

[D] the concluding part of a book.

Vocabulary

1. subculture 亚文化群(指在一个社会或一种文化内具有独特性的一群人)

2. superficial 肤浅的,浅薄的,表面的

3. lay person 外行,门外汉,俗人

4. musty 发毒的,老朽的,陈腐的

5. gadget 小玩意儿,小配件,新发明

6. pervasive 渗透的,弥漫的,遍布的

7. populate 居住于……中,在……中占一席之地

8. implicit 含蓄的,内含的

9. unspecified 未特别提出的

10. offset 抵消,补偿

难句译注

1. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.

【参考译文】如果一个人知道那些使科学家激动不已和灰心丧气的东西,那就比较容易了解科学的一般(普遍)特征以及特殊科学概念。

2. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitude and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are and what they do.

【参考译文】我们希望这本书能引导读者对科学观念有一个更为广阔的透视;对什么是科学、科学家是些什么人以及他们在干什么有一个更为现实的观点。

3. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.

【参考译文】另外,读者可学会正确评价科学观点与我们文化中无处不在的某些价值观和哲学思想之间的关系。

4. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions.

【参考译文】科学亚文化群中妇女作用越来越大。这不是难得一见的意外事件,而是,确切地说,在社会各部门显著潮流的一部分由于越来越多妇女进入了传统上为男子统治的领域并作出了重大的贡献。

5. This policy is far from being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgement of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of human race equally.

【参考译文】这一策略并不理想,但它至少承认了一个事实,那就是在平等对待人类另一半上,我们的语言功能还不全。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇书的序言,作者用夹叙夹议的写作方法介绍了书的涉及面及其功能。

首先提出科学是我们文化的重大主题,但人们也该了解科学家生活的亚文化群,只有懂得一些激励和挫伤科学家的种种情况,才能理解科学的一般特征及其特殊概念。

第二方面指出书的读者对象是对科学一知半解的学生及门外汉。书可作理工科课程的辅助(补充)读物,又可独立自成体系。它可开阔人们科学的视野,真正了解科学、科学家及其工作,理解科学和文化的关系,科学观点和哲学的关系。

第三方面指出亚文化群中妇女增多,贡献巨大,而我们的语言却隐含这性别的歧视,难以充分平等地反映妇女。

最后指出书信息量大又具娱乐性,寓教于乐。

答案详解

1. C 科学社区。答案在第一段第二句,人们也该了解科学家生活在其中的亚文化群以及他们是什么样的人。第三段又讲到,有关科学社区的画面以及妇女对科学亚文化的贡献??杉蒲缜囱俏幕?。

A. 科学家所组成种种文化群体。 B. 科学知识有限的一些人。 C. 对科学作出很大贡献的人。

2. B 因为科学几乎影响到我们生活的各个方面。文章开综明旨点出:科学是我们文化中的重要主题,由于它几乎涉及到我们生活的每一方面,有知识的人至少需要熟悉一些结构和作用。

A. 了解激发和挫伤科学家的事情可不太容易。(比较难) C. 科学家生活在特定的亚文化群中。D. 了解科学的一般特性比较容易。

3. A 不太了解科学的大学生或门外汉。第二段首句就点出了这本书为对科学一知半解的大学生和门外汉所写,为某些人,一直把科学看作干巴巴的事实堆砌的发霉的石屋的人;为那种把科学的主要目的视为生产小配件的人;为那些把科学视为某种魔术的人而写。这说明主要为A项人所写,对科学了解不多的大学生和普通人。

B. 善于生产各种小配件。 C. 在干巴巴的事实堆砌的石屋中工作。 D. 相对科学有肤浅了解的人。

4. D 不应当用阳性的名词和代词去指科学家。第三段集中讲了这本书提供精确而又现代的有关科学社区(社会)和居住在其中的人的画卷。近年来,越来越多的妇女包括进来,原因是许多妇女进入传统上为男人统治的领域,并作出巨大贡献,所以妇女在科学亚文化群中的增多并不是罕见的偶然事件,而是社会各部门明显趋势的组成部分。在讨论其变化和贡献时,我们面临着隐含性别歧视的语言――用阳性名词和代词来指未指定人物,为了消除这种偏颇,我们在可能和必要时采用了复数名词和代词来取代他或她。

A. 英语是一种性别语言。 B. 只有在科学领域中,妇女的作用增长很快。 C. 妇女在晓民我们语言中的不适当性作出了巨大的贡献。根据此题注释说明这三项都不对。英语不能说成是有性别的语言,其中虽有些词性表示男性或女性。文内明确指科学界妇女增多是整个社会的趋势的组成部分。由于妇女在科学界的贡献,所以不能再用阳性名词或代词去指科学界,并不是在消灭语言……

5. B 书的前言,见文章大意。

A. 书的评论。 C. 书跋、书的附录。 D. 书的结论部分。

Passage five(Meditation in Indonesian Business)

It looked like a typical business meeting. Six men, neatly dressed in white shirts and ties filed into the boardroom of a small Jakarta company and sat down at a long table. But instead of consulting files or hearing reports, they closed their eyes and began to meditate, consulting the spirits of ancient Javanese kings. Mysticism touches almost every aspect of life in Indonesia and business is no exception. One of the meditators said his weekly meditation sessions are aimed mainly at bringing the peace of mind that makes for good decision-making. But the insight gained from mystic communication with spirits of wise kings has also helped boost the profits of his five companies.

Mysticism and profits have come together since the 13th century introduction of Islam to Indonesia by Indian Moslem merchants. Those devout traders, called ‘Wali Ullah’ or ‘those close to God, ’ energetically spread both trade and religion by adapting their appeals to the native mysticism of Java. Legends attribute magic power of foreknowledge to the Wali Ullah. These powers were believed to be gained through meditation and fasting.

Businessman Hadisiko said his group fasts and meditates all night every Thursday to become closer to God and to contact the spirits of the great men of the past. ‘If we want to employ someone at the managerial level, we meditate together and often the message comes that this man can’t hole onto money or he is untrustworthy. Or maybe the spirits will tell us he should be hired.’ Hadiziko hastened to add that his companies also hold modern personnel management systems and that formal qualifications are essential for a candidate even to be considered. Perspective investments also are considered through mystic meditation. ‘With the mind relaxed and open, it is easier to be objective in judging the risk of a new venture. Meditation and contact with the wisdom of the old leaders sharpens your own insight and intuition. Then you have to apply that intuition to the information you have and work hard to be successful. ’ Mystic meditation helped reverse a business slide his companies experienced in the mid-1980. Operating with normal business procedures, he lost more than $ 3 millions in that year alone. Meditation brought back his peace of mind. Putting the right persons in the right jobs and gaining confidence in his business decisions were the keys to a turning around that has brought expansion and profitability. The mysticism in Handspike’s boardroom is part of a growing movement in Indonesia called Kebatinan – the ‘search for the inner self.’

One of his managers, Yusuf Soemado, who studied business administration at Harvard University, compared the idea of mystic management to western system of positive thinking. ‘Willpower and subconscious mind are recognized as important factors in business. Such approaches as psycho-cybernetics, Carnegie’s think and growth rates, or the power of positive thinking are western attempts to tap the same higher intelligence that we contact through meditation,’ he said.

1. What is the most important factor in their doing business?

[A] Mysticism.

[B] Religion.

[C] Meditation.

[D] Investment.

2. Whom do they consult?

[A] The spirits of ancient Javanese kings.

[B] Wali Ullah.

[C] Old Kings.

[D] Carnegie.

3. Why did Hadisike hasten to add ‘his companies also hold modern personnel management systems…’?

[A] He thought Mysticism was not so good as expected.

[B] To show they too focused on qualifications.

[C] To show they hired qualified persons.

[D] To show the possibility of combination of the scientific management with religion.

4. According to the passage, the function of the meditation is

[A] to gain profit from the god.

[B] to gain peace of mind to make decision.

[C] to gain foreknowledge.

[D] to gain objective conclusion.

5. What does ‘operating with normal business procedures’ refer to?

[A] Adopting the western way of doing business.

[B] Ordinary way of doing business without meditation and fasting.

[C] Contact with God.

[D] Putting right persons in the right jobs.

Vocabulary

1. file into 鱼贯而入,排队进去

2. Jakarta 雅加达

3. meditate 沉思,冥想,反省

4. Java 爪哇

5. Javanese 爪哇的

6. mysticism 神秘主义

7. boost 促进,增加,提高

8. devout 虔诚的,热诚的

9. appeal (to) 向……呼吁,求助于,魅力

10. legend 传说,神话

11. fasting 禁食,斋戒

12. hold onto 抓紧,保住

13. personnel management system 人事管理制度

14. perspective investment 远景投资

15. venture (商业)投机,风险

16. sharpen 使……敏锐/尖锐,磨尖

17. business slide 买卖/企业滑坡,下滑

18. turn around (生意)好转,转变

19. subconscious 下意识的,潜意识的

20. cybernetics 控制论

21. Carnegie 卡耐基

22. tap 开拓,选择

难句译注

1. Mysticism touches almost every aspect of life in Indonesia and business is no exception.

【参考译文】在印尼神秘主义似乎涉及到印尼生活的各个方面,商业也不例外。

2. Those devout traders, called ‘Wali Ullah’ or ‘those close to God, ’ energetically spread both trade and religion by adapting their appeals to the native mysticism of Java.

【参考译文】这些虔诚的商人,叫做Wali Ullah,或者“接近主的人”,把他们的祈求呼吁跟爪哇当地的神秘主义相结合。他们通过这一途径积极热情地拓展商业买卖和宗教信仰。

3. Putting the right persons in the right jobs and gaining confidence in his business decisions were the keys to a turning around that has brought expansion and profitability.

【参考译文】恰当的工作岗位使用合适的人选,对企业决策具有信心使形式好转的关键。它给你带来拓展和利润。(或任人唯贤,指挥若定使扭亏增盈,大展宏图的关键。)

4. Search for the inner self.

【参考译文】探索内心的自我。

5. Such approaches as psycho-cybernetics, Carnegie’s think and growth rates, or the power of positive thinking are western attempts to tap the same higher intelligence that we contact through meditation.

【参考译文】类似心理控制论、卡耐基思想、增长率、或者积极思考能力等观点是西方开拓高智能的办法,而我们是通过沉思冥想来和高智能联系的。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇新闻报导,讲述印度尼西亚商人如何经营公司。主要采用一般到具体写作手法。一开始就点明他们以独特的方式――不看文件,不听汇报,而是闭上眼睛沉思,向古代帝王的精灵请示来经营。这种神秘主义几乎涉及印尼生活的各个领域,商业也不例外。后面每段都围绕这一主题而写。第二段写来源。第三段,应用于商业方面的具体例子,第四段,和西方管理方法对比。

答案详解

1. C 沉思。这在第一断已有说明。

A. 神秘主义。是个总的概念,笼罩生活各方面。而不是具体的做法和重要因素。 B. 宗教。 D. 投资。

2. A 爪哇古代帝王之精灵。答案在第一段。

B. Wali Ullah是指印度穆斯林商人。这些虔诚的商人叫做Wali Ullah或者成为接近主的人。传说神话也把先知的力量归功于Wali Ullah。C. 老帝王。D. 卡耐基,1835-1919是生于苏格兰的美国钢铁工业家和慈善家。他有一套管理企业的办法,称为卡耐基思想(管理法)。

3. B 他们也重视资历、才能。这在第三段中第二行起,商人 Hadisiko讲话清楚说明“如果我们要雇佣管理人员,我们就一起沉思,常?;嵊姓庵中畔⒗戳伲赫飧鋈瞬荒芄芾砬苹蛘咚豢煽?。也可能神灵告诉我们应当雇佣他。接着他匆忙补充说他的公司也采用现代人事管理系统,即要考虑雇佣的人员最根本的条件仍是正式资历”。

A. 他认为神秘主义不像想象中那么好。C. 表明他们雇佣人才。上下文说明,他所以补充是说明他们也重视资格。D. 表明科学管理和宗教结合的可能性。Hadisike语中没有这种意思。但不能说他们雇佣人才不管宗教。

4. B 得到冷静头脑来决策。这在第三段后半部分讲到?!霸毒暗耐蹲室彩峭ü衩氐某了技右钥悸?。有着放松和开放的头脑,易于客观地判断新投资的风险。沉思和过去领袖的接触会是你的洞察力和感官变得敏锐?!钡谝欢蔚谖逍小捌渲幸晃怀了颊咚得啃瞧诘某了蓟嶂饕勘晔谴匆桓銎骄驳耐纺?,作出好决策?!?/p>

A. 从上帝那里得到利润。 C. 取得先知。不对,先知的能力归于Wali Ullah。D. 得到客观的结论。文内只提到,头脑放松容易客观地判断投资风险与否,并不是客观的结论。

5. B 没有沉思和斋戒的常规作生意。见第三段中,神秘的沉思帮助扭转公司生意滑坡而正常买卖步骤,这一年就损失了300万美元。这两句对比的话说明B项内容。

A. 采用西方买卖方式(交易方式)。文内没有点明正常就是西方方式。C. 和上帝接触。D. 知人善任。

Passage six(Dropouts for Ph. D. s)

Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s. Some have placed the dropouts loss as high as 50 percent. The extent of the loss was, however, largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study was published. It was published. It was based on 22,000 questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless.

The dropouts rate was found to be 31 per cent, and in most cases the dropouts, while not completing the Ph. D. requirement, went on to productive work. They are not only doing well financially, but, according to the report, are not far below the income levels of those who went on to complete their doctorates.

Discussing the study last week, Dr. Tucker said the project was initiated ‘because of the concern frequently expressed by graduate faculties and administrators that some of the individuals who dropped out of Ph. D. programs were capable of competing the requirement for the degree. Attrition at the Ph. D. level is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources already being used to capacity. Some people expressed the opinion that the shortage of highly trained specialists and college teachers could be reduced by persuading the dropouts to return to graduate schools to complete the Ph. D.’

“The results of our research” Dr. Tucker concluded, “did not support these opinions.”

1. Lack of motivation was the principal reason for dropping out.

2. Most dropouts went as far in their doctoral program as was consistent with their levels of ability or their specialities.

3. Most dropouts are now engaged in work consistent with their education and motivation.

Nearly 75 per cent of the dropouts said there was no academic reason for their decision, but those who mentioned academic reason cited failure to pass the qualifying examination, uncompleted research and failure to pass language exams. Among the single most important personal reasons identified by dropouts for non-completion of their Ph. D. program, lack of finances was marked by 19 per cent.

As an indication of how well the dropouts were doing, a chart showed 2% in humanities were receiving $ 20,000 and more annually while none of the Ph. D. ‘s with that background reached this figure. The Ph. D. ‘s shone in the $ 7,500 to $ 15,000 bracket with 78% at that level against 50% for the dropouts. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are still lagging behind other fields.

As to the possibility of getting dropouts back on campus, the outlook was glum. The main condition which would have to prevail for at least 25 % of the dropouts who might consider returning to graduate school would be to guarantee that they would retain their present level of income and in some cases their present job.

1. The author states that many educators feel that

[A] steps should be taken to get the dropouts back to campus.

[B] the fropouts should return to a lower quality school to continue their study.

[C] the Ph. D. holder is generally a better adjusted person than the dropout.

[D] The high dropouts rate is largely attributable to the lack of stimulation on the part of faculty members.

2. Research has shown that

[A] Dropouts are substantially below Ph. D. ‘s in financial attainment.

[B] the incentive factor is a minor one in regard to pursuing Ph. D. studies.

[C] The Ph. D. candidate is likely to change his field of specialization if he drops out.

[D] about one-third of those who start Ph. D. work do not complete the work to earn the degree.

3. Meeting foreign language requirements for the Ph. D.

[A] is the most frequent reason for dropping out.

[B] is more difficult for the science candidate than for the humanities candidate.

[C] is an essential part of many Ph. D. programs.

[D] does not vary in difficulty among universities.

4. After reading the article, one would refrain from concluding that

[A] optimism reigns in regard to getting Ph. D. dropouts to return to their pursuit of the degree.

[B] a Ph. D. dropout, by and large, does not have what it takes to learn the degree.

[C] colleges and universities employ a substantial number of Ph. D. dropouts.

[D] Ph. D. ‘s are not earning what they deserve in nonacademic positions.

5. It can be inferred that the high rate of dropouts lies in

[A] salary for Ph. D. too low.

[B] academic requirement too high.

[C] salary for dropouts too high.

[D] 1000 positions.

Vocabulary

1. dropout 辍学者,中途退学

2. well-rounded 全面的

3. attrition 缩/减员,磨损

4. drain 枯竭

5. bracket 一类人,(尤指按收入分类的)阶层

6. lagging behind other fields 落后于其它领域

7. glum 阴郁的

难句译注

1. Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s.

【参考译文】教育工作者严重关注博士生辍学的高比率;这对迫切需要博士生的国家是一个人才方面的严重损失。

2. It was base on 22,000questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless.

【结构分析】sent过去分词,修饰questionnaires。Who定语从句修饰students。

【参考译文】这份全面调查报告是以22000份调查表分送给以前在24所大学就读的博士生为基础的。这份全面调查报告似乎说明过去许多担心害怕是没有根据的。

3. Attrition at the Ph. D. lever is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources already being used to capacity.

【结构分析】被动句。To capacity满额,全力。

【参考译文】博士水平的人员的缩减被认为是宝贵的教授时间的浪费和已经被使用到极限的大学资源的枯竭。

4. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are still lagging behind other fields.

【结构分析】the fact的同位语that从句中的where是定语从句,修饰academic fields。

【参考译文】这也可能表明这样一个事实:在博士能挣到最高工资的学术领域中,高工资仍然落后于其它领域。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇论及“博士生辍学”的文章。采用对比和因果手法。文章一开始就提出教育工作者严重关注博士生辍学达50%的问题。而调查报告证明,只有31%。辍学造成不良后果,有人建议中途退学者回炉再念博士学位学业。研究表明不行。列出理由并加以分析。

答案详解

1. A. 许多教育工作者感到应采取步骤让辍学者回校学习,特别是有些学科。这在第三段最后一句话:“有些人建议高级专家和大学教师短缺现象可以通过劝说辍学者返回校园完成博士学位来减少?!?/p>

B. 辍学者应回到稍第几的学校去完成学业。 C. 有博士学位的人一般比辍学者具有较好的适应性。 D. 高辍学率主要原因在于教师方面缺乏刺激鼓励。这三项文内没有提。

2. D.约三分之一开始就读博士学位的人没有完成学业取得学位。第二段第一句:“辍学率为31%。大多数情况下,辍学人不能完成博士学位学业,就去从事生产性工作”。

A. 辍学者的经济收入比博士生低许多。这是错的。见倒数第二段:“作为辍学者干得真不错的证明,统计图表说明2%人文学科的辍学者年收入为20000多没劲,没有一个同样背景的博士生达到这个数字。7000至15000美元年收入水平为博士生的78%,辍学者仅为50%?!?B. 在博士学习中刺激因素较小。 C. 博士预备生如果中途退学很可能改变其专业领域。

3. C. 博士生应达到外语要求的水平是许多博士生课程的一个基本组成部分。这在第四段有所表示:“约75%的退学者说,他们决定退学并不是处于学术的原因,而处于学术原因的退学者提出:难以通过资格考试,难以完成研究,通不过外语考试”。这里看出外语是博士生课程的基本组成部分。

A. 它是退学最频繁的原因。 B. 它对理科博士生比文科博士应考生更难。 D. 它在大学中的难度并没有不同。

4. A. 读完这篇文章,人们不会有这种结论。这在第三段末和最后一段。第三段末:“我们研究的结果并不支持这些一件(包括返回校园之意见):⑴缺乏动力是退学的主要原因。⑵大多数退学者在博士课程上已经达到和他们的能力水平和专业水平相一致的水平。⑶大多数退学者现在从事的工作和他们所受教育和动机相一致?!弊詈笠欢危骸爸劣诜祷匦T暗目赡苄?,前景不乐观。至少有25%的退学生可能考虑返回研究生院就读,条件是保证他们保留现有的收入水平,有些还要保留他们目前的工作?!?/p>

B. 博士生退学者,大体而论,并不具备得到学位所需要的一切。 C. 学院和大学雇佣了许多退学生。 D. 博士生在非学术岗位上没有挣到他们应得的钱。B.、C.两项文内没提。D.不对,参见难句译注4。

5. A. 博士生的工资太低。见第四题A.的译注和难句译注4。

B. 学术要求太高。这只是某些因学术原因辍学者之强调点。 C. 辍学者工资太高。不是太高而是有一部分高于博士生。见第二题D项注释。 D. 职位低。文内没有提。

Passage seven(Stricter Traffic Law can Prevent Accidents)

From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen.

It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering-wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-years-olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving.

The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behaviour. Everything is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy tragic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten.

It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some the things that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made far more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be mad much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as to severe if tit results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motor-cars.

1. The main idea of this passage is

[A] Traffic accidents are mainly caused by motorists.

[B] Thousands of people the world over are killed each year.

[C] The laws of some countries about driving are too lax.

[D] Only stricter traffic laws can prevent accidents.

2. What does the author think of society toward motorists?

[A] Society smiles on the motorists.

[B] Huge car parks are built in the cities and towns.

[C] Victims of accidents are nothing.

[D] Society condones their rude driving.

3. Why does the author say:’ his car becomes the extension of his personality?’

[A] Driving can show his real self.

[B] Driving can show the other part of his personality.

[C] Driving can bring out his character.

[D] His car embodies his temper.

4. Which of the followings is NOT mentioned as a way against traffic accidents?

[A] Build more highways.

[B] Stricter driving tests.

[C] Test drivers every three years.

[D] raise age limit and lay down safety specifications.

5. The attitude of the author is

[A] ironical

[B] critical

[C] appealing

[D] militant

Vocabulary

1. immunise 使免疫,使免除

2. expectation of life = life expectancy 平均寿命

3. versus = against 对顶,反对

4. mutilate 伤害

5. wilful 任性的,固执的

6. benign 宽厚的,仁慈的

7. condone 宽容

8. desecrate 亵渎,玷污

9. code 法规,规定,惯例

10. stringent 严格的,紧急的,迫切的

11. performance 演出,成品,这里是指car’s behavior such as speed, function etc.可译成行为,汽车行为、功能等。

难句译注

1. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing.

【参考译文】人和汽车对抗!这是一场人类永远是输家的无休止的战斗。

2. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned.

【参考译文】应当禁止所有强调力量和表现行为的广告。

写作方法与文章大意

文章论述“交通事故”,采用因果、对比手法。从人的平均寿命增加和交通事故率成正比谈起,触及事故率上升的原因,要求制定更严格的法规予以制止种种造成事故的不良行为。

答案详解

1. D 只有更严格的交通法规才能制止交通事故。这在最后一段的结论中体现的最清楚。前面几段只是讲造成事故的种种原因。其目的就是:“是制定世界交通法规以减少无谓的生命浪费的时候了。对于开车,有些国家的法规太松弛,甚至最严格的国家也不够严格。世界公认之法律只可能对交通事故率起大大降低的作用(有非常好的效果。)”这里列出几件要干的事:“驾驶测试应当标准化,比现在的要严格;所有死机每三年考核一次;年轻人驾车的允许年龄应提高到21岁;全部机动车每年都应经过严格的安全测试(测定其安全性)……这些步骤可能听起来异常严厉,可是,如果其结果事减少每年死伤人数的话,就不存在什么太严格的事了?!?/p>

A. 主要是机动车死机造成的交通事故。 B. 全世界每年有几千人丧生。 C. 有些国家的交通法规太松弛。这三道答案都是文中谈到某一点,不能作为中心目的。

2. D 社会宽容这种野蛮开车行径。答案就在第三段:“令人惊讶的是社会对司机宽厚地笑笑,似乎宽容他们的行为。一切都为他们的方便而干。人们允许城市由于交通拥挤而几乎不能居住了,大型停车场把城镇“弄得”丑陋不堪,公路网玷污了乡村,每年大量的杀伤仅仅成为统计数字,被很容易地忘记?!?/p>

A. 社会对司机笑容可掬。B. 大型停车场建在市和镇上。C. 交通死难者等于零。这三项都只是第三段的一个个具体事实。社会正是通过这一件件事来宽容司机野蛮开车,而造成事故。

3. A “他的车就是他个性的外延”这句话就体现了“开车表现他真正的自我,真实的个性”。第二段讲的很清楚:“这么说完全正确:当一个人坐在方向盘后,他的车就成为他个性的外延。毫无疑问,汽车常常表现了人之最坏的品质。平常很安详愉快的人一坐在方向盘后可能就变得难以认识。他们咒骂、行为差劲、好斗、固执、任性得就像两岁的孩子。他们所有隐藏的失落、失望和忌妒感,似乎都在开车中暴露出来”。

B. 表现他个性的另一面。 C. 表现了他的性格。 D. 他的车体现了他的脾气秉性。只是表现自我中的某个事实。

4. A 只有建更多高速公路。没有提。

B. 更难的测试。C. 每三年对司机进行一次考察。 D. 提高年龄段和制定安全条例。都提到。见第一题译注。

5. B 批评的态度。文章第一、二、三段指出了造成交通事故的原因,呼吁各国制定严格的交通法规,批评现有的交通法规松弛不严格,最后指出世界是人类的,不是摩托车的等等,都说明作者对上述种种都具批评的态度。

A. 讽刺的。 C. 哀求的、呼吁的。 D. 富有战斗性的。

Passage Eight(The Development of Cities)

Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant form city centers than they were in the premodern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years – lots that could have housed five to six million people.

Of course, many were never occupied; there was always a huge surplus of subdivided, but vacant, land around Chicago and other cities. These excesses underscore a feature of residential expansion related to the growth of mass transportation: urban sprawl was essentially unplanned. It was carried out by thousands of small investors who paid little heed to coordinated land use or to future land users. Those who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes, particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and middle-class inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much as to respond to it. Chicago is a prime example of this process. Real estate subdivision there proceeded much faster than population growth.

1. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?

[A] Types of mass transportation.

[B] Instability of urban life.

[C] How supply and demand determine land use.

[D] The effect of mass transportation on urban expansion.

2. Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?

[A] To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth.

[B] To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation.

[C] To show mass transportation changed many cities.

[D] To contrast their rate of growth.

3. According to the passage, what was one disadvantage of residential expansion?

[A] It was expensive.

[B] It happened too slowly.

[C] It was unplanned.

[D] It created a demand for public transportation.

4. The author mentions Chicago in the second paragraph as an example of a city,

[A] that is large.

[B] that is used as a model for land development.

[C] where the development of land exceeded population growth.

[D] with an excellent mass transportation system.

Vocabulary

1. revise 改变

2. fabric 结构

3. catalyze 催化,加速

4. sort out 把……分门别类,拣选

5. omnibus 公共汽车/马车

6. trolley (美)有轨电车,(英)无轨电车

7. periphery 周围,边缘

8. sprawl 建筑物无计划延伸,蔓延,四面八方散开

9. lot 小片土地

10. underscore 强调,在下面划横线

11. transit lines 运输线路

12. subdivision (出售的)小块土地,再划分小区

写作方法与文章大意

文章论述了“公共交通从三方面改变了城市的社会和经济结构?!辈捎梅掷嘈捶?。文章一开始就提出三方面:第一,促进城市实质性的扩展;第二,把人和土地分民别类加以利用;第三,加速了城市生活的不稳定性。然后就是三方面的具体内容。

答案详解

1. D 公共交通运输对城市扩展的影响。文章开门见山提出这一点“公共交通运输从三个根本方面改变了美国城市的社会和经济结构?!焙竺嫖恼履谌菥褪侨矫娴木咛寤?。

A. 公共交通运输类型。 B. 城市生活的不稳定性。 C. 供需如何决定土地利用。这三项文中作为具体问题提到,并不是文章涉及的主要题目。

2. C 说明公共交通改变了许多城市。答案箭第一段第四句“举例说,1850年,波士顿市界离老的商业地区几乎不到2英里,到了这世纪末,其半径扩至10英里。现在供得起的人们可以住得很远,远离老的城市中心,仍然来回去那里上班、购物和娱乐”。第七句,“举例说,在1890至1920年期间,据记载,芝加哥市界内有约250,000个新的住宅楼区大多数设在郊区。经过同样这段时期,市区外,但仍在芝加哥大都市地区内,又计划建造了550,000个住宅楼区?!?/p>

A. 表示成长的正反两方面效果。B. 举有无公共交通运输的城市为例。 D. 对比两者成长率;都不是本文中举两城市例子的目的。

3. C 没有计划。见第二段第三句起“城市扩展蔓延根本无计划,好几千个小的投资商进行扩展,毫不考虑相互协调配合利用土地,也不考虑未来土地利用?!?/p>

A. 太贵 和 B.太慢,两个选项,文内没有提。D. 它创造了对公共交通运输的需求。这不是住宅扩展的一个缺点,而是三个根本改变城市的一个方面。见第一段第三句:“通过大量开发未占土地扩建住宅,公共汽车、马车、铁路、来回火车,有轨电车把已有人定居的居住区向外扩展了三四倍,比他们先现代时期的市中心更远?!?/p>

4. C(第二段中以芝加哥城市例子说明)土地开发超过人口增长速度。答案详见第二段“这些购买和置备土地建设住宅,特别是购置临近城市或就在市界外的土地,抢在交通线路和中产阶层的居民进去之前。他们这样做的目的是创造一种需求,也是响应这种需求。芝加哥就是这种过程的典型例子。那里的房地产小块土地比人口增长快得很多很多?!?/p>

A. 城市大。B. 用作土地开发的样板。 D. 具有优越的公共的交通系统。

Passage Nine(Holmes’ Knowledge)

His ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar system.

“You appear to be astonished, ” Holmes said, smiling at my expression. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it. You see, I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose: A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hand upon it. It is a mistake to think that the little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you know before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System! ” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently.

One morning, I picked up a magazine from the table and attempted to while away the time with it, while my companion munched silently at his toast. One of the articles had a pencil mark at the heading, and I naturally began to run my eye through it.

Its somewhat ambitious title was “The Book of Life, ” and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way. It struck me as being a remarkable mixture of shrewdness and of absurdity. The reasoning was close and intense, but the deduction appeared to me to be far-fetched and exaggerated. The writer claimed by a momentary expression, a twitch of a muscle or a glance of an eye, to fathom a man’s inmost thought. Deceit, according to him, was impossibility in the case of one trained to observation and analysis. His conclusions were as infallible as so many propositions of Euclid. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as a necromancer.

“From a drop of water, ”said the writer, “a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic. So all life is a great chain, the nature of which is known whenever we are shown a single link of it. Like all other arts, the science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it. ”

This smartly written piece of theory I could not accept until a succession of evidences justified it.

1. What is the author’s attitude toward Holmes?

[A]Praising.

[B]Critical.

[C]Ironical.

[D]Distaste.

2. What way did the author take to stick out Holmes’ uniqueness?

[A]By deduction.

[B]By explanation.

[C]By contrast.

[D]By analysis.

3. What was the Holmes’ idea about knowledge-learning?

[A]Learning what every body learned.

[B]Learning what was useful to you.

[C]Learning whatever you came across.

[D]Learning what was different to you.

4. What did the article mentioned in the passage talk about?

[A]One may master the way of reasoning through observation.

[B]One may become rather critical through observation and analysis.

[C]One may become rather sharp through observation and analysis.

[D]One may become practical through observation and analysis.

Vocabulary

1. Thomas Carlyle 托马斯·卡莱尔 1795-1881美国作家、历史家、哲学家

2. jumble (up) 搞乱,使混乱

3. lay hand on (upon) sth. 抓住,找到

4. at best 最好的情况下

5. elbow out (off) 用胳膊肘挤出,推出

6. deuce = devil

what the deuce is it to me? 这里表示福尔摩斯的厌恶心理。义:这倒霉的词儿与我有什么关系?

7. while away the time 消磨/打发时间

8. shrewdness 机敏,敏锐,犀利

9. far-fetched 牵强附会,不自然

10. fathom 看穿/透,推测,探索

11. infallible 一贯正确

12. uninitiated 对某事无知的

13. Euclid 欧几里德(古希腊数学家)

14. necromancer 巫师

难句译注

1. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hand upon it.

【结构简析】主从句结构,主句A fool … 后跟lumber的定从that he comes across。从句so that 中有一knowledge的定从which; or链接前后两个分词crowded out 与jumbled up;但第一个so that 从句又是后面so that 的主句。

【参考译文】蠢人把他碰到的每种木材(制家具)都拿进来。这样,可能对他有用的知识都被挤出去;最好的情况下,也是和其他种种事情混在一起,所以他就很难抓住知识。

2. Its somewhat ambitious title was “The Book of Life, ” and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way.

【结构简析】并列句,连词and后的句中有宾从how much…。

【参考译文】这片文章稍有炫耀的标题是“生命之书”。它想证明一个善于观察的人通过对他经历到的一切事情都进行真正地系统地考察可以学到多少东西。

3. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as a necromancer.

【结构简析】复合主从句,so that句型。So句是倒装。正常句型应为:His results would appear so startling to the uninitiated that…,that句中又是主从句,从句用until连接,中插by which定语从句修饰 the processes。

【参考译文】他的结论对无知的人来说是那么惊人,所以他们很可能认为他是个巫师,除非他们学会了他用以得出结论的过程。

4. Like all other arts, the Science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it.

【结构简析】并列句,nor连接。前一句中有定语从句which修饰one,后一句nor为否定词。

【参考译文】像所有的其他艺术一样,演绎分析科学是一种通过长期默默的研究,可以习得的学问,而我们的生命并不长得足以使任何凡人都能在这一领域取得可能是臻美的成就。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇“传记”,作者采用以反衬正的对比手法写出了福尔摩斯之惊人才华。第一句话开明宗旨“他的无知和他的有知一样卓越惊人”,接着就是种种无知,达到突出其有知的成就。两方面表达,一是福尔摩斯对无知的解释:不能照单全收;二是作者的反对见解衬托福之才华超人,能一滴水见大海。

答案详解

1. A 赞扬。作者以无知烘托人物之有知,以他本人的反对批评观点来证明人物的正确。否定及所谓机刺旨在铺垫。正反对比赞扬福之精明强悍,才智超人,洞察力强。

2. C 作者采用对比手法。

3. B 学习对你有用之物。第二段福之表白,他把头脑比作一个小小的空屋,不能随意选择家具(知识)塞满空间,应选择“有用之才”,免得填满了废物,把有用之才挤出去。

4. C 通过观察和分析人会变得很敏锐。最后二段都是讲福所写文章的内容。善于观察和分析的人可以一眼看透人之本质,一点水能知大西洋。这种一叶知秋的本领是通过长期观察、分析研究而得。也就是说,通过观察分析,人可以变得敏感聪慧,因为万物都有联系。

Passage ten(Antinuclear Demonstration)

Police fired tear gas and arrested more than 5,000 passively resisting protestors Friday in an attempt to break up the largest antinuclear demonstration ever staged in the United States. More than 135,000 demonstrators confronted police on the construction site of a 1,000-megawatt nuclear power plant scheduled to provide power to most of southern New Hampshire. Organizers of the huge demonstration said, the protest was continuing despite the police actions. More demonstrators were arriving to keep up the pressure on state authorities to cancel the project. The demonstrator had charged that the project was unsafe in the densely populated area, would create thermal pollution in the bay, and had no acceptable means for disposing of its radioactive wasters. The demonstrations would go on until the jails and the courts were so overloaded that the state judicial system would collapse.

Governor Stanforth Thumper insisted that there would be no reconsideration of the power project and no delay in its construction set for completion in three years. “This project will begin on time and the people of this state will begin to receive its benefits on schedule. Those who break the law in misguided attempts to sabotage the project will be dealt with according to the law,” he said. And police called in reinforcements from all over the state to handle the disturbances.

The protests began before dawn Friday when several thousand demonstrators broke through police lines around the cordoned-off construction site. They carried placards that read “No Nukes is Good Nukes,” “Sunpower, Not Nuclear Power,” and “Stop Private Profits from Public Peril.” They defied police order to move from the area. Tear gas canisters fired by police failed to dislodge the protestors who had come prepared with their own gas masks or facecloths. Finally gas-masked and helmeted police charged into the crowd to drag off the demonstrators one by one. The protestors did not resist police, but refused to walk away under their own power. Those arrested would be charged with unlawful assembly, trespassing, and disturbing the peace.

1. What were the demonstrators protesting about?

[A] Private profits.

[B] Nuclear Power Station.

[C] The project of nuclear power construction.

[D] Public peril.

2. Who had gas-masks?

[A] Everybody.

[B] A part of the protestors.

[C] Policemen.

[D] Both B and C.

3. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a reason for the demonstration?

[A] Public transportation.

[B] Public peril.

[C] Pollution.

[D] Disposal of wastes.

4. With whom were the jails and courts overloaded?

[A] With prisoners.

[B] With arrested demonstrators.

[C] With criminals.

[D] With protestors.

5. What is the attitude of Governor Stanforth Thumper toward the power project and the demonstration?

[A] stubborn.

[B] insistent.

[C] insolvable.

[D] remissible.

Vocabulary

1. tear gas 催泪瓦斯

2. passively resisting protestor 不抵抗的抗议者

3. stage 发起,举行,上演

4. break up 驱散,终止

5. cordon 警戒线,警戒

6. nuke (美俚)核武器,核电站

7. defy 公然蔑视/反抗

8. canister 罐,筒,榴霰弹筒

9. dislodge 赶走

10. charge 冲锋,向前冲

11. trespass 非法侵入,扰乱

难句译注

1. Police fired tear gas and arrested more than 5,000 passively resisting protestors Friday in an attempt to break up the largest antinuclear demonstration ever staged in the United States.

【结构简析】句中间用in an attempt介词短语和staged分词使句子变长。Staged修饰demonstration。

【参考译文】星期五,再制止美国举行过的最大的反核示威游行中,警方发放了催泪瓦斯,逮捕了5000多不拒捕的抗议者,企图解散游行队伍。

2. The protests began before dawn Friday when several thousand demonstrators broke through police lines around the cordoned-off construction site.

【结构简析】主从句。

【参考译文】星期五拂晓之前,当好几千名示威者冲破警戒再核建设基地周围的警察封锁线时,抗议示威开始了。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一则有关反对核电站的群众示威抗议的新闻导报,采用对比手法。警方镇压;群众坚决抗议。第一段就写出了尽管警方释放催泪瓦斯,逮捕了5000多人,示威组织者申明抗议要继续下去,越来越多的抗议者参与对当局加压,想迫使其废除在当地建立核电站的计划。其理由是在人口密集地区建站不安全,在海湾产生热污染,核废料处理无有效方法。

第二段叙述了州长大人坚决维护核电站的立场,不再考虑计划修改问题,三年内要完成核电站建设。届时,本州人民得益。对企图破坏计划实施而违法的人将以法处置。已集结全州警察加强对付这次捣乱。

第三段讲了双方现场交战:星期五破晓,数千示威者(高举示威牌,上写:没有核电站就是好的核电站;不要核能,要太阳能等)冲过建设基地警察警戒线,警察用催泪瓦斯无效后,开始一个一个地抓逮示威者,被捕者将被控以非法集会、侵入和扰乱治安等罪名。

答案详解

1. C 抗议建设核电站计划。不是抗议核电站。至于

B. 核电站还未建,所以不对。A. 私人利益 和 D. 公共危险,这些都是示威牌上之口号不是抗议的主攻方向。

2. D 双方。 最后一段第四行最后和第五行“抗议者准备了他们自己的防毒面具或面罩。最后,头戴防毒面具和头盔的警察冲进人群一个一个地抓逮示威者?!彼运盗椒矫娑加蟹蓝久婢?。

3. A 公共交通运输。

B. 公共危险。 C. 污染。 D. 废料处理,是三个抗议的理由。

4. B 被逮捕的示威者。第一段最后一行“示威要继续下去直到州监牢和州法庭人满为患,从而使州司法体系垮台?!彼得魇就咦急溉プ?,决不服输的决心。而人多到监牢装不下证明州司法的问题。所以这里只能是被抓的示威者。

A. 犯人。 C. 罪犯。D.抗议者。警察不可能抓所有的抗议者。关在牢里的只能是被抓的示威者。

5. A 固执己见,冥顽不化。见第二段他坚持说核电站计划不用再考虑,三年内一定要建成,计划准时开始,本州人民到时候就能获益。对这些违法企图破坏计划的人依法惩处。并且从州内各处调集警察来处理这次“骚乱”。从语言到行动都说明,这位州长固执己见,顽固得很。

B. 坚持的。 C. 不能解决的。 D. 可宽恕的。

Passage Eleven (Superconducting Materials)

The stone age, The Iron Age. Entire epochs have been named for materials. So what to call the decades ahead? The choice will be tough. Welcome to the age of superstuff. Material science -- once the least sexy technology – is bursting with new, practical discoveries led by superconducting ceramics that may revolutionize electronics. But superconductors are just part of the picture: from house and cars to cook pots and artificial teeth, the world will someday be made of different stuff. Exotic plastics, glass and ceramics will shape the future just as surely as have genetic engineering and computer science.

The key to the new materials is researchers’ increasing ability to manipulate substances at the molecular level. Ceramics, for example, have long been limited by their brittleness. But by minimizing the microscopic imperfections that cause it, scientists are making far stronger ceramics that still retain such qualities as hardness and heat resistance. Ford Motor Co. now uses ceramic tools to cut steel. A firm called Kyocera has created a line of ceramic scissors and knives that stay sharp for years and never rust or corrode.

A similar transformation has overtaken plastics. High-strength polymers now form bridges, ice-skating rinks and helicopter rotors. And one new plastic that generates electricity when vibrated or pushed is used in electric guitars, touch sensors for robot hands and karate jackets that automatically record each punch and chop. Even plastic litter, which once threatened to permanently blot the landscape, has proved amenable to molecular tinkering. Several manufacturers now make biodegradable forms; some plastic six-pack rings for example, gradually decompose when exposed to sunlight. Researchers are developing ways to make plastics as recyclable as metal or glass. Besides, composites – plastic reinforced with fibers of graphite or other compounds – made the round-the-world flight of the voyager possible and have even been proved in combat: a helmet saved an infantryman’s life by deflecting two bullets in the Grenada invasion.

Some advanced materials are old standard with a new twist. The newest fiberoptic cable that carry telephone calls cross-country are made of glass so transparent that a piece of 100 miles thick is clearer than a standard window pane.

But new materials have no impact until they are made into products. And that transition could prove difficult, for switching requires lengthy research and investment. It can be said a firmer handle on how to move to commercialization will determine the success or failure of a country in the near future.

1. How many new materials are mentioned in this passage?

[A] Two

[B] Three

[C] Four

[D] Five

2. Why does the author mention genetic engineering and computer science?

[A] To compare them with the new materials.

[B] To show the significance of the new materials on the future world.

[C] To compare the new materials to them.

[D] To explain his view point.

3. Why is transition difficult?

[A] Because transition requires money and time.

[B] Because many manufacturers are unwilling to change their equipment.

[C] Because research on new materials is very difficult.

[D]Because it takes 10 years.

4. Where lies success of a country in the New Age of superstuff?

[A] It lies in research.

[B] It lies in investment.

[C] It lies in innovation.

[D] It lies in application.

Vocabulary

1. superstuff 超级材料

2. superconducting ceramic 超导陶瓷

3. exotic 神奇的

4. shape 塑造,成型

5. brittleness 脆性

6. polymer 聚合体

7. karate jacket 空手道外衣

8. touch sensor 触及传感器

9. each punch and chop 每一个击、打

10. blot 玷污,损害风景的东西

11. tinker 修补,调整

12. amendable 服从于,遵循的

13. biodegradable 能生物递减分解的

14. six-pack rings 放六个罐子的环状物

15. decompose 分解

16. recyclable 可循环(使用的)

17. infantryman 步兵

18. deflect 使偏斜,使转向

19. a new twist 一个新的观点,方法

难句译注

1. Material science – once the least sexy technology – is bursting with new, practical discoveries led by superconducting ceramics that may revolutionize electronics.

【参考译文】材料科学,一度曾是最无吸引力(最不起眼)的技术,正以崭新的 ,以超导陶瓷为首的种种实用性发明绽开新颜。这种超导陶瓷可能会使电子技术彻底改变。

2. Some advanced materials are old standard with a new twist. The newest fiberoptic cables that carry telephone calls cross-country are made of glass so transparent that a piece of 100 miles thick is clearer than a standard window pane.

【参考译文】有些高级材料是带有新方法的老标准。最新全国电话的光纤电缆由玻璃制成。这种玻璃透明度极高,一片100英里厚的玻璃比一块标准的窗框玻璃还要清晰透明。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇介绍“超导材料”的论说文,采用一般到具体的分类写作手法。先指出未来时代的材料属于超导,然后再提出三种超导材料,再逐一说明。

答案详解

1. B 三种超导材料。答案再第一段最后一句“神奇的塑料、玻璃和陶瓷”。下面各段具体讲这三种材料。第二段讲陶瓷:“新材料之关键在于研究工作者不断提高在分子水平上处理物质的能力。举陶瓷为例,由于它的脆性,长期来应用范围有限。但是通过改善导致脆性的微小缺陷,科学家制造出一种保持原有硬度和抗热性,但坚实得多的陶瓷”。第三段讲塑料?!袄嗨频淖鄯⑸谒芰仙?,高强度的塑料建成了桥梁、溜冰场、直升机的叶轮。一种震动或推动就能发电的新型塑料用于电子吉他上,触及传感塑料用于机械手和空手道外衣上,它能自动记录每次击打?!焙竺嫣讣八芰侠梢源?,或者制造可分解还原的塑料制品。塑料内加入其他化合物加强性能。第四段讲有些高级材料由新的改变,最新的光纤电缆由玻璃制成,透明度极高,100英里厚的一块其清晰度比一块普通窗玻璃还高。

2. B 说明这种新材料对未来世界的意义。答案在第一段:“神奇的塑料、玻璃和陶瓷一定会象生物工程和计算机一样将改变世界?!?/p>

A. 把它们和新材料相比较,这里不仅仅是比较,而是说明三者都具同样的作用--改变世界。 C. 把新材料比作它们。也不仅仅是比喻比拟。 与A一样没有说到核心电。D. 说明他的观点。太笼统。

3. A 转折需要钱和时间。见最后一段“可是新材料只有制成产品才有影响,而这个转折可能很困难,因为转折需要长期的研究和投资??梢哉饷此?,在不久的将来,更牢牢地掌握如何把材料转变成商品将决定一个国家之成败?!?/p>

B. 因为许多制造商不愿改变他们的设备。C. 因为新材料的研究非常困难。 D. 转折要华上十年时间。这三项文内没有涉及。

4. D 在超级材料时代已过之成功在于应用。

A. 在于研究。B. 在于投资。C. 在于革新。这三项都是应用的部分前提。其中A和B文内提到,C项文内未涉及。

Passage Twelve (We Should All Grow Fat and Be Happy)

Here’s a familiar version of the boy-meets-girl situation. A young man has at last plucked up courage to invite a dazzling young lady out to dinner. She has accepted his invitation and he is overjoyed. He is determined to take her to the best restaurant in town, even if it means that he will have to live on memories and hopes during the month to come. When they get to the restaurant, he discovers that this ethereal creature is on a diet. She mustn’t eat this and she mustn’t that. Oh, but of course, she doesn’t want to spoil his enjoyment. Let him by all means eat as much fattening food as he wants: it’s the surest way to an early grave. They spend a truly memorable evening together and never see each other again.

What a miserable lot dieters are! You can always recognize them from the sour expression on their faces. They spend most of their time turning their noses up at food. They are forever consulting calorie charts; gazing at themselves in mirrors; and leaping on to weighing-machines in the bathroom. They spend a lifetime fighting a losing battle against spreading hips, protruding tummies and double chins. Some wage all-out war on FAT. Mere dieting is not enough. They exhaust themselves doing exercises, sweating in sauna baths, being pummeled and massaged by weird machines. The really wealthy diet-mongers pay vast sums for ‘health cures’. For two weeks they can enter a nature clinic and be starved to death for a hundred guineas a week. Don’t think it’s only the middle-aged who go in for these fads either. Many of these bright young things you see are suffering from chronic malnutrition: they are living on nothing but air, water and the goodwill of God.

Dieters undertake to starve themselves of their own free will; so why are they so miserable? Well, for one thing, they’re always hungry. You can’t be hungry and happy at the same time. All the horrible concoctions they eat instead of food leave them permanently dissatisfied. Wonderfood is a complete food, the advertisement says. ‘Just dissolve a teaspoonful in water…’. A complete food it may be, but not quite as complete as a juicy steak. And, of course, they’re always miserable because they feel so guilty. Hunger just proves too much for them and in the end they lash out and devour five huge guilt-inducing cream cakes at a sitting. And who can blame them? At least three times a day they are exposed to temptation. What utter torture it is always watching others tucking into piles of mouth-watering food while you munch a water biscuit and sip unsweetened lemon juice!

What’s all this self-inflicted torture for? Saintly people deprive themselves of food to attain a state of grace. Unsaintly people do so to attain a state of misery. It will be a great day when all the dieters in the world abandon their slimming courses; when they hold out their plates and demand second helpings!

1. The best title for this passage is

[A] On Fat.

[B] We Should All Grow Fat and Be Happy.

[C] Many Diseases Are Connected with Fat.

[D] Diet Deprives People of Normal Life.

2. Why do they never see each other again?

[A] Because it is a memorable evening.

[B] Because she lets him eat as much fattening food as he wants.

[C] Because she does not eat this and drink that.

[D] Because eating fattening food is the surest way to an early grave.

3. Which of the following ways is NOT mentioned for diet?

[A] Doing exercises.

[B] Not eating sugar.

[C] Not eating fat.

[D] Taking sauna baths.

4. What is the author’s attitude toward diet?

[A] Persuasive.

[B] Critical.

[C] Indifferent.

[D] Adversative.

Vocabulary

1. ethereal 优雅的,飘渺的

2. sour 愁眉不展的

3. tummy 肚子

4. protrude 突出的,突起的

5. wage 作(战),实行

6. all-out 全面的

7. sauna bath 桑拿浴

8. pummel = pommel 用拳头连打

9. massage 按摩

10. weird 不可思议的,离奇的

11. monger 商人,贩子

12. fad 一时流行的风尚

13. concoction 调制品,荤素混合菜,调和物

14. wonderfood 奇妙的食物

15. lash out 痛斥,鞭打

16. at a/one sitting 一口气

17. munch 用力嚼

18. inflict 予以打击,使遭受

19. slim 苗条的,不足取的,无价值的

写作方法与文章大意

文章论及“减肥及痛苦”。以先声夺人的男女约会入手,引入减肥的痛苦过程:首先是各种减肥的方法(全面战斗);其次是痛苦的难熬;最后点出减肥的目的。号召人放弃减肥。三段式文章:引言,正文和结论。以讽刺的笔调,步步深入的手法劝人放弃减肥,过愉快的生活。

答案详解

1. B 我们都该长得胖乎乎,心情愉快。这是文章的目的,也是文章最佳标题。答案见最后一段:“这一切自我折磨为了什么?圣洁的人们不吃饭菜是为了身材优美,不圣洁的人们不吃饭菜得到的是痛苦。当世界上所有的节食者都抛弃这减轻体重显得苗条的课程时当他们伸出盘子,要求再来一份(第二份食物)时,这将是一个伟大的日子?!?/p>

A. 论脂肪。似乎有点儿接近文章的内容。但文章涉及到的各个方面并不是单讲脂肪食品或饮食问题。C. 许多疾病和脂肪有关。文内第一段提到这方面的问题。D. 节食剥夺了人们正常生活。文内提到,但不是文章的总目的和内容。

2. D吃脂肪食品早死。答案就在第一段“当他们来到饭店,他发现这位优雅的少女(飘逸的少女)是个忌口节食者。决不能吃这个,一定不能喝那个。喔,当然,她不想扫他的兴,让他想吃多少脂肪的食品就尽量吃。这是早早接近死亡的最有把握的途径?!闭饫锎萘降阈畔?。一个吃,一个不吃已经是格格不入,再加上“多吃脂肪东西早死亡”姑娘怎能嫁他,他一个人吃而那位姑娘瞧着,确实是难以忘怀的夜晚,他受得了?所以D是最接近不再见面的原因。

A. 因为这是一个值得纪念的夜晚。B. 她让他爱吃多少脂肪食物就吃多少。C.因为她不吃这个也不吃那个。这三项都是单独的事实或情况。

3. B不吃糖。答案再第二段第二句开始“他们大部分时间对食品都不屑一顾。他们永远向热量表讨教咨询,照镜子,跳到浴室的磅秤上称重量。他们一声都在向臀部大,肚子突出,双下巴绽开一个准输无疑的战斗。有的对脂肪开展了全面战斗。光节食是不够的,他们运动以消耗体重,洗桑拿浴出汗,用奇异的机器按摩和击打?!?/p>

A. 运动做操。C.不吃脂肪。D.洗桑拿浴。

4. B批评的态度。这在第二、三段都有明显的表示。第二段开始:“这些节食者是多么可怜的一群人??!你总是可以从他们愁眉不展的表情上认出他们?!钡诙蔚故谒木淇迹骸罢庑┱嬲星慕谑炒罂钗】抵瘟浦Ц洞蟊实目钕?。他们进到“自然门诊”。两个星期饿得要死,每星期付一百畿尼。别以为仅仅是中年人参与这种时尚活动。你可以见到许多青年正由于长期营养不良而遭罪。他们就靠空气、水和上帝的善意而活着?!钡谌?,“节食者甘愿忍饥挨饿,那么他们为什么那样难受悲惨呢?得,首先,他们总是感到饥饿。你不可能饿着肚子高兴。他们吃的不是食物,全是搭配好的东西,这永远不能使他们满意……”第三段倒数第三句“饥饿确实令他们感到太受不了了。最终,他们破釜沉舟,一口气就吞下了五大块使人内疚的奶油蛋糕。谁能责怪他们!他们一天至少三次面对引诱,老是看着别人大口吃着馋涎欲滴的食品,而你自己用力嚼一口水饼干和喝一口没有甜味的柠檬汁。这是一种什么样的折磨??!”

A.劝导的。 C.漠不关心。这两项不对。D. 敌意的。不合适。

Passage Thirteen (The Neutrality of American in the Early World War II)

The establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of events which culminated in war between Germany and the United States. The compete destruction of democracy, the persecution of Jews, the war on religion, the cruelty and barbarism of the Nazis, and especially the plans of Germany and her allies, Italy and Japan, for world conquest caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war. While speaking out against Hitler’s atrocities, the American people generally favored isolationist policies and neutrality. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with any belligerents or loans to them. In 1937 the President was empowered to declare an arms embargo in wars between nations at his discretion.

American opinion began to change somewhat after President Roosevelt’s “quarantine the aggressor” speech at Chicago (1937) in which he severely criticized Hitler’s policies. Germany’s seizure of Austria and the Munich Pact for the partition of Czechoslovakia (1938) also aroused the American people. The conquest of Czechoslovakia in March, 1939 was another rude awakening to the menace of the Third Reich. In August,1939 came the shock of the Nazi-soviet Pact and in September the attack on Poland and the outbreak of European war. The United States attempted to maintain neutrality in spite of sympathy for the democracies arrayed against the Third Reich. The Neutrality Act of 1939 repealed the arms embargo and permitted “cash and carry” exports of arms to belligerent nations. A strong national defense program was begun. A draft act was passed (1940) to strengthen the military services. A Lend Act (1941) authorized the President to sell, exchange, or lend materials to any country deemed necessary by him for the defense of the United States. Help was given to Britain by exchanging certain overage destroyers for the right to establish American bases in British territory in the Western Hemisphere. In August, 1940 President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met and issued the Atlantic Charter which proclaimed the kind of a world which should be established after the war. In December, 1941, Japan launched the unprovoked attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor. Immediately thereafter, Germany declared war on the United States.

1. One item occurring before 1937 that the author does not mention in his list of actions that alienated the American public was

[A] the burning of the Reichstag.

[B] German plans for conquest.

[C] Nazi barbarism.

[D] the persecution of religious groups.

2. The Lend-Lease Act was designed to

[A] help the British.

[B] strengthen the national defense of the United States.

[C] promote the Atlantic Charter.

[D] avenge Pearl Harbor.

3. American Policy during the years 1935-1936 may be described as being

[A] watchful.

[B] isolationist.

[C] peaceful.

[D] indifferent.

4. The Neutrality Act of 1939

[A] permitted the selling of arms to belligerent nations.

[B] antagonized Japan.

[C] permitted the British to trade only with the Allies.

[D] led to Lend-Lease Act.

5. We entered the war against Germany

[A] because Germany declared war.

[B] because Japan was an ally of Germany.

[C] after Germany had signed the Nazi-soviet Pact.

[D] after peaceful efforts had failed.

Vocabulary

1. Reich 帝国,尤指第二次世界大战前及大战期间的德国

2. atrocity 凶残,残暴

3. belligerent 好战的,交战国的

4. discretion 判断力,自行裁决,谨慎

5. empower 赋予……权力

6. embargo 禁运,封港

7. quarantine 停船检疫,隔离,封锁,使孤立

8. partition 分割,瓜分

9. menace 威胁,危险

10. repeal 废除,取消

11. overage destroyer 旧式驱逐舰

12. unprovoked 无缘无故的,非因触犯而发生的

13. Neutrality Acts 中立法令

14. Munich Pact 慕尼黑公约

15. draft act 征兵法

16. Lend Lease Act 租借法

17. Atlantic Charter 大西洋公约

18. Pearl Harbor 珍珠港

写作方法与文章大意

文章讲述了第三帝国成立,美国由中立到宣战的一段历史。采用按年代先后进行叙述的写作手法。文章一开始就点明主题:“第三帝国的成立影响了美国历史,从一系列事情开始,最终导致德国和美国交战?!?/p>

答案详解

1. A帝国大厦焚毁,众所周知,这是纳粹希特勒精心策划的一次政治阴谋,旨在迫害德国共产党。

B. 德国征服计划。C. 纳粹之残暴。D. 迫害宗教团体。在文中都提到。见第一段第二句“民主的全面摧毁、对犹太人的迫害、摧残宗教、纳粹的残忍和野蛮,特别是德国及其盟国意、日、征服世界的计划激起美国极大愤怒,也带来了对又一次世界大战的恐惧?!?/p>

2. B 加强美国国防。见第二段导数第五句“1941年的租借法规定:总统对他认为保卫美国所需要的国家有权卖给、交换或借给他们物资?!?/p>

A. 帮助英国,不对。C. 促进大西洋公约。大西洋公约是1941年8月,罗斯福和邱吉尔会面后的联合公告。D. 报复珍珠港。是1941年日本发起袭击的报复。

3. B 与世隔绝。这在第一段第三句“美国人民虽然反对希特勒的凶残等事,他们一般还是喜欢孤立(与世隔绝的)政策和保持中立。1933年和1936年的中立条约规定:禁止和交战国双方贸易和借贷?!?/p>

A. 观察的。C. 和平的。D. 不正确的。

4. A 允许把武器卖给交战国。答案在第二段第六句“1939年的中立条约取消了武器禁运,允许进行现钞交易出口武器给交战国?!?/p>

B. 和日本敌对。C. 允许英国只能和其盟国贸易。D. 导致租借条约。

5. A 因为德国宣战。这在第一段已有说明。尽管希特勒坏事做尽,美国还是倾向于中立政策。第二段罗斯福在芝加哥的演讲,态度稍有改变。严厉批评希特勒的政策,但仍然以中立为主。1941年日本袭击珍珠港,不久德国宣战,美国才不得不参战。

Passage Fourteen(Antarctica and Environment)

Antarctica has actually become a kind of space station – a unique observation post for detecting important changes in the world’s environment. Remote from major sources of pollution and the complex geological and ecological systems that prevail elsewhere, Antarctica makes possible scientific measurements that are often sharper and easier to interpret than those made in other parts of the world.

Growing numbers of scientists therefore see Antarctica as a distant-early-warning sensor, where potentially dangerous global trends may be spotted before they show up to the north. One promising field of investigation is glaciology. Scholars from the United States, Switzerland, and France are pursuing seven separate but related projects that reflect their concern for the health of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet – a concern they believe the world at large should share.

The Transantarctic Mountain, some of them more than 14,000 feet high, divide the continent into two very different regions. The part of the continent to the “east” of the mountains is a high plateau covered by an ice sheet nearly two miles thick. “West” of the mountain, the half of the continent south of the Americas is also covered by an ice sheet, but there the ice rests on rock that is mostly well below sea level. If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet disappeared, the western part of the continent would be reduced to a sparse cluster of island.

While ice and snow are obviously central to many environmental experiments, others focus on the mysterious “dry valley” of Antarctica, valleys that contain little ice or snow even in the depths of winter. Slashed through the mountains of southern Victoria Land, these valleys once held enormous glaciers that descended 9,000 feet from the polar plateau to the Ross Sea. Now the glaciers are gone, perhaps a casualty of the global warming trend during the 10,000 years since the ice age. Even the snow that falls in the dry valleys is blasted out by vicious winds that roars down from the polar plateau to the sea. Left bare are spectacular gorges, rippled fields of sand dunes, clusters of boulders sculptured into fantastic shapes by 100-mile-an-hour winds, and an aura of extraterrestrial desolation.

Despite the unearthly aspect of the dry valleys, some scientists believe they may carry a message of hope of the verdant parts of the earth. Some scientists believe that in some cases the dry valleys may soak up pollutants faster than pollutants enter them.

1. What is the best title for this passage?

[A] Antarctica and environmental Problems.

[B] Antarctica: Earth’s Early-Warning station.

[C] Antarctica: a Unique Observation Post.

[D] Antarctica: a Mysterious Place.

2. What would the result be if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet disappeared?

[A] The western part of the continent would be disappeared.

[B] The western part of the continent would be reduced.

[C] The western part of the continent would become scattered Islands.

[D] The western part of the continent would be reduced to a cluster of Islands.

3. Why are the Dry Valleys left bare?

[A] Vicious wind blasts the snow away.

[B] It rarely snows.

[C] Because of the global warming trend and fierce wind.

[D] Sand dunes.

4. Which of the following is true?

[A] The “Dry Valleys” have nothing left inside.

[B] The “Dry Valleys” never held glaciers.

[C] The “Dry Valleys” may carry a message of hope for the verdant.

[D] The “Dry Valleys” are useless to scientists.

Vocabulary

1. distant-early-warning sensor 远距离早期报警传感器

2. plateau 高原,高地

3. slash 挥砍

4. blast 一阵疾风/狂风

5. vicious 邪恶的,凶魔般的

6. gorge 峡谷

7. ripple 起伏,使起微波

8. sand dune 沙丘

9. verdant 绿色

10. extraterrestrial 地球之外的

11. aura 气氛

难句译注

1. Growing numbers of scientists therefore see Antarctica as a distant-early waning sensor, where potentially dangerous global trends may be spotted before they show up to the north.

【结构简析】see … as 把……看作。Where定从修饰Antarctic。

【参考译文】因此,越来越多的科学家把南极洲视为一个远距离早期报警敏感器,在那里地球许多潜在的危险动向早在它们出现于北方以前就能发现。

2. The part of the continent to the “east” of the mountain

东指的使印度正南的这一部分?;蛏揭贫哪遣糠种?。

3. an aura of extraterrestrial desolation

应译为:与地球格格不入的一种荒凉隔绝的气氛?;蛴胧栏艟囊恢只牧蛊?。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇有关南极洲科研考察的重要性的科普文章。采用因果,点面结合写法。首先提出:由于南极洲远离污染,又不同于其它任何地方,普遍存在着复杂的地质和生态环境,所以这块地方就可能得到更敏锐又易解释的科学测量结果。它成了监察世界环境变化的观察哨和空间站,后面几段就写了进行考察的方面和结果。

答案详解

1. A 南极洲和环境问题。

B. 南极洲:地球最早的报警战。C.南极洲:独一无二的观察哨。D. 南极洲:神秘的地方。三项都是总内容众的组成部分。

2. D 大陆西部成为一群岛屿。第三段“横断南极的山脉,有的高达一万四千多英尺,把这大陆分成情况各异的两个地区。山脉以东的大陆部分是由差不多两英里厚的冰层覆盖的高原;山脉以西,即美洲以南的半个大陆也为冰层所覆盖??墒?,这里冰层覆盖在大大低于海平面的岩石。如果西南极洲冰层消失,那这大陆西部将成为稀疏的岛群?!?/p>

A. 大陆西部将小时。B. 大陆西部缩小。 D. 大陆西部将成为分散的岛屿。

3. C 因为地球变暖和狂风劲吹。在第四段:“……这些干谷甚至在寒冬季节也很少有冰雪。它们插在南维多利亚陆地的山脉中,一度曾有从极地高原到罗斯海的深度为9000英尺的冰河。现在冰河已不存在,很可能是冰期之后一万年间地球变暖的结果。即使落入干谷的雪也被从极地高原咆哮入海的邪恶狂风吹散了。留下来的是裸露的壮观的峡谷,沙丘起伏的原野,被时速一百英里的大风雕刻成奇形怪状的大砾石,形成与世隔绝的荒凉景象?!?/p>

A. 邪恶的狂风吹走了雪。B. 它很少下雪。D.沙丘。这三项只是干谷现象的一部分。

4. C 他们可能为地球上绿色地区带来了希望的信息。答案是第五段第一句“尽管干谷具有神秘的一面,科学家却相信他们可能为地球上葱绿的地方带来了希望的信息?!?/p>

A.干谷内什么都没有留下。B. 干谷内从没有冰河。D. 按照科学家的看法,干谷毫无用处。

Passage Fifteen (Contribution of Coeducation)

Imagining being asked to spend twelve or so years of your life in a society which consisted only of members of own sex. How would you react? Unless there was something definitely wrong with you, you wouldn’t be too happy about it, to say the least. It is all the more surprising therefore that so many parents in the world choose to impose such abnormal conditions on their children – conditions which they themselves wouldn’t put up with for one minute!

Any discussion of this topic is bound to question the aims of education. Stuffing children’s heads full of knowledge is far from being foremost among them. One of the chief aims of educations is to equip future citizens with all they require to take their place in adult society. Now adult society is made up of men and women, so how can a segregated school possibly offer the right sort of preparation for it? Anyone entering adult society after years of segregation can only be in for a shock.

A co-educational school offers children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Boys and girls are given the opportunity to get to know each other, to learn to live together from their earliest years. They are put in a position where they can compare themselves with each other in terms of academic ability, athletic achievement and many of the extra-curricular activities which are part of school life. What a practical advantage it is ( to give just a small example ) to be able to put on a school play in which the male parts will be taken by boys and the female parts by girls! What nonsense co-education makes of the argument that boys are cleverer than girl or vice-versa. When segregated, boys and girls are made to feel that they are a race apart. Rivalry between the sexes is fostered. In a coeducational school, everything falls into its proper place.

But perhaps the greatest contribution of co-education is the healthy attitude to life it encourages. Boys don’t grow up believing that women are mysterious creatures – airy goddesses, more like book-illustrations to a fairy-tale, than human beings. Girls don’t grow up imagining that men are romantic heroes. Years of living together at school dispel illusions of this kind. There are no goddesses with freckles, pigtails, piercing voices and inky fingers. There are no romantic heroes with knobbly knees, dirty fingernails and unkempt hair. The awkward stage of adolescence brings into sharp focus some of the physical and emotional problems involved in growing up. These can better be overcome in a co-educational environment. Segregated schools sometimes provide the right conditions for sexual deviation. This is hardly possible under a co-educational system. When the time comes for the pupils to leave school, they are fully prepared to enter society as well-adjusted adults. They have already had years of experience in coping with many of the problems that face men and women.

1. What is the best title for this passage?

[A] only co-education can be in harmony with society.

[B] people are in great need of co-education.

[C] any form of education other than co-education is simply unthinkable.

[D] co-education has many features.

2. what does co-education offer to children?

[A] A society.

[B] A true small model of society.

[C] A real life.

[D] True version of social condition.

3. According to the passage, what is one of the chief aims of education?

[A] It is for students to acquire knowledge.

[B] It is to equip future citizens with scientific technology.

[C] It is to equip future citizens with what is required in getting a position in society.

[D] It is for students to get academic achievements.

4. Why do boys and girls in co-education have no illusion about each other?

[A] They live together and know each other too well.

[B] Years of living together at school dismiss such illusion.

[C] co-education encourage them to have an healthy attitude toward life.

[D] They are familiar with each other’s problems.

Vocabulary

1. to be in for = receive 接受

He is in for punishment. 他受到惩罚。

2. miniature 缩样,雏形,微型画

3. freckle 雀斑

4. pigtail 鞭子

5. knobbly = knobby 多节的

6. unkempt 乱七八糟,蓬乱的

7. sharp focus = clear view

bring into focus 使集中在焦点上,对光

bring into sharp focus 这里的意义是:一目了然,明显突出

8. deviation 越轨,偏离,入歧途

难句译注

1. all the more

越发,格外。

2. a co-educational school offers children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature.

【参考译文】男女合校至少给孩子提供了一个社会真正缩影。

3. The awkward stage of adolescence brings into sharp focus some of the physical and emotional problems involved in growing up.

【参考译文】棘手的青春期把成长过程中出现的某些身体上合感情上的问题清晰地摆出来。

写作方法与文章大意

文章论及“男女合校制的优越性和男女分校制的缺陷?!辈捎靡蚬?、对比写法。首先假设单一性别社会,人所不能容忍,那单一性别的学校培养的人又怎能适应社会。因为社会是男女组成的。然后分别对比合校和分校的优缺点。比较合校的优点,分校的缺点,最后得出结论:之后合校的学生,在离校进入社会,已做好一切准备,而不会感到震惊,因为他们已有好几年的经验,会处理面临男女的许多问题。

答案详解

1. C 除了男女合校,其他形式的教育简直难以想象。答案见第一段“设想请你在一个只有你一样性别的人存在的社会生活12年光景,你会如何反应呢?除非你本人确实有毛病,否则,你至少不会太高兴。因此,世界上有那么多的父母愿意把这种不正常的环境(他们自己一分钟都受不了的环境)强加给他们的孩子们,这太令人惊讶!”第二段讲“教育的目的之一就是为未来的公民在成人社会中找一席之地,准备好需要的一切。而社会由男女组成,那分校又怎能准备?”后两段讲合校之优点,分校之缺点,具体对比突出主题。这都说明C 最合适。

A. 只有合校才能和社会相协调。D. 合校有许多特点。这两项文章内容涉及到,但作为最佳标题则不确切。B. 人们非常需要合校。文内没有直接谈到。

2. B 一个真实社会的缩影。这在第三段第一句“男女合校确实能给孩子们提供一个社会真实的缩影?!毕旅娴哪谌荻际俏普飧鲋魈舛吹木咛迩榭?。如:生活在一起,彼此了解,对比等。

A. 社会。C. 一种真实的生活。D. 真实的社会情况。都没有B项那样确切。

3. C 为未来公民在社会上拥有一席之地,准备好所需要的一切。这在第二段“这个话题的讨论必然会引出教育目的的问题。把各种知识塞进孩子头脑远不是教育主要的目的,教育的主要目的之一是为未来公民在成人社会求得一席之地,准备好所需一切?!?/p>

A. 学生学到只是。B. 以科技武装未来公民。C.为学生缺德学术成就。都只是知识学习的一个部分。

4. B 几年学校共同生活打消了幻想。答案在第四段中,“在学校中,几年生活在一起消除这一类的幻想。没有什么脸上有雀斑,梳着鞭子,涂着指甲,尖的噪音的女神,也没有膝部有疙瘩,指甲脏兮兮,头发乱蓬蓬的浪漫英雄。棘手的青春期明显呈现出来的成长过程中身体上和感情上的问题,在男女合?;肪持械玫胶芎玫慕饩??!?/p>

A. 他们生活在一起,彼此太了解。此答案太过,不是太了解而不产生幻想,而是了解情况;真人就在眼前,人就实际了,消除了幻想。C. 合校鼓励他们对生活有一种健康积极的态度。这是合校的大方向,不是消除幻想的根本原因。D. 他们熟悉彼此的问题。不全是消除幻想之因,而是处理问题的前奏。这在最后一段最后两句话有说明“当学生离校的时刻来到时,他们已是很有适应性的成人,为进入社会做好了充分准备。他们已有几年处理面临男女的许多问题的经验?!?/p>

Passage Sixteen (Mules)

Although the top men in smuggling business must work together, most of a syndicate’s small fry, especially the mules, know only their immediate contacts. If caught there is little they can give away. A mule probably will not even know the name of the person who gives him his instructions, nor how to get in touch with him. Usually he even does not know the person to whom he has to make delivery. He will be told just to sit tight in a certain hotel or bar until someone contacts him. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs he cannot unwittingly lead agents to the next link in the chain. All the persons at the receiving end do is to hang around the airport among the waiting crowd, and see that the mule comes through safely. If he does not, he is dimply written off as a loss. To make identification of mules easier, several syndicates have devised their own “club ties” so that a mule wearing one can immediately be picked out.

Mules often receive careful training before embarking on their first journey. One Beirut organization, for example, uses a room with three airline seats in it. There the trainee mules sit for hours on end wearing weighted smuggling vests beneath their clothes, so that they become accustomed to standing up after a long flight in a natural way, and without revealing what they are carrying. An outfit in Brussels maintained a comfortable apartment where the mules could relax and get a firm grip on themselves on the night before their first journey; they were helped to dress before setting out for the airport in the morning. More often than not a courier will not know precisely where he is going or what flight number is until he is actually handed his tickets at the airport. This prevents the careless boast in some bar or to a girl friend the night before.

Mules occasionally run off with the goods to keep the profit themselves. As insurance against this, a syndicate often sends a high-up on the same plane to keep a wary eye on couriers, particularly new ones. Even then things can go badly wrong. One international currency smuggler who was having trouble getting money out of Britain was offered help by a group of men who said they were in a position to “fix thing” – for a fee of course. Foolishly, the smuggler agreed to accept their help. When he got to London’s Heathrow Airport, he handed over to one of the men a black suitcase containing nearly $90,000 in cash, destined for Frankfurt. Just to keep an eye on things, the smuggler went along on the same plane. When they landed at Frankfurt he was handed back his suitcase. He beat a straight path to the men’s toilet, opened the case, and found only old clothes. The courier had switched suitcase en route, but the smuggler could hardly run to the police and complain that “the man who was smuggling money out of England for me has stolen it.”

1. What is a “mule”?

[A] A person who sends smuggling goods for a syndicate is called mule.

[B] A person in charge of smuggling goods is called mule.

[C] A person who makes delivery for a syndicate is called mule.

[D] A person who receives instructions from a smuggler is called mule.

2. The sentence “if he is blown” in line (6) is closest in meaning to

[A] if he is arrested.

[B] if he is recognized, but not necessarily arrested.

[C] if he is recognized and arrested.

[D] if he runs away.

3. Why does the author give an example in the last paragraph?

[A] To show how a smuggler is caught.

[B] To show a smuggler is afraid of the police.

[C] To show to keep a wary eye on couriers is useless.

[D] To show mules may keep the profit for themselves.

4. how does a mule work?

[A] Jointly.

[B] Independently.

[C] consciously.

[D] Separately.

Vocabulary

1. fry 小鱼群,小生物群。这里的small fry是指辛迪加之子公司,小走私集团或走私者

2. sit tight 稳坐不动,坚持下去,这里指一直坐等着,等到有人来和他联系。

3. blown 欠账的,被炸毁的。这里指走私分子“出事”

4. write off 销账,被勾销的项目。这里指把出事的骡子从名单上勾掉。

5. written off as a loss 作为损失销账。

6. embark (on) 开始搞,从事,上船。

7. grip 紧握

8. high up 高处,这里指高一级走私人

9. fix thing 这里指“摆平事情”,解决问题

10. beat 踏上

11. switch 转变,调换

难句译注

1. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs he cannot unwittingly lead agents to the next link in the chain.

【结构简析】条件句

【参考译文】这样,一旦在他通过机场检查处时出事,他不可能愚蠢地把检查事务官引到锁链的下一个环节。

2. There the trainee mules sit for hours on end wearing weighted smuggling vests beneath their clothes, so that they become accustomed to standing up after a long flight in a natural way, and without revealing what they are carrying.

【结构简析】主从句。主句中分词断语wearing修饰trainee。从句中and连接两组介词短语,后有一宾语从句what they are carrying。这实际上是with(without) +v-ing+object基本句型。

【参考译文】在那里,走私者衣服下穿着装有东西的厚厚的走私背心,连续几个小时坐着,所以他们在长时间飞行后,能习惯于很自然地站起来而不暴露他们身上携带的一切。

3. An outfit in Brussels maintained a comfortable apartment where the mules could relax and get a firm grip on themselves on the night before their first journey; they were helped to dress before setting out for the airport in the morning.

【结构简析】句子结构复杂。Where定语从句修饰apartment,从句中and连接两个谓语动词,后面又用分毫隔开另一句分句。

【参考译文】布鲁塞尔一家走私集团长期包了一套舒适的公寓。在那里走私分子可以休息,在第一次上路前的夜晚,好好控制下自己;早上出发去机场前,有人帮他们穿好衣服。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇介绍走私分子(绰号为骡子)的文章,采用一般到具体的写作手法。先从走私集团对具体走私分子实行单线,单方面联系,分配任务,以免他被逮住后出卖更多的人,危及走私集团。接货地点的人根据各集团自制的识别标志“会员联系信号带”和走私者联系。随后是具体培训走私分子,防范措施及出岔子等一般面谢佐以具体例子作说明,如:贝鲁特走私集团培训和从伦敦运送美金到法兰克福的事件。

答案详解

1. C mule,骡子是为走私集团交货人的称呼,绰号。

A. 是为走私集团具体运送走私货物的人。只运送,不交货不能成为骡子。B.负责走私货物的人。也不对,负责者不一定运送和交货。D.从走私者那里接受指示的人。更不对。

2. B blown原义为:欠账了的,被炸毁的,坏了等。这里指:走私分子在过海关,机场检查处出事,不一定被逮捕。

A.逮捕。C.认出,逮捕。D.逃跑。都不符合blown原义。

3. D 说明走私分子会把利益归己。最后一段第一句“有时,走私分子带着货物逃跑,把利益归己”。走私集团为防范此事,常常派遣高级人物监视走私人,特别是新走私者,也于事无补。这段的具体例子:“走私者和委托人同机飞行,到法兰克?;?,9万美金也是不翼而飞,走私者已经捞到手?!本褪撬得髯咚秸呖梢晕约毫粝虏坡?。

A.走私者被捕之事,例子中没有提及。B.走私者不去警察局报案,并不易定是害怕警察局,而是报不了。C.监督毫无用处。是副线。

4. D单个干。这在第一段一开始就点明:“走私商的上层人物(头面人物)必须一起工作,而大多数辛迪加的小组织,特别是走私分子,他们只知道他们的直接联系人。一旦他们被逮捕,就没有什么可以出卖的。一个骡子甚至连给他指示的人的姓名都不知道,也不知道如何和此人联系”。

A.共同干。B.独立干,走私分子不是独立,大多数是在监督之下。C.有意识地干,上下都是有意识地干。

Passage Seventeen (On the President’s Program)

President Arling has put his long awaited economic restructuring program before the Congress. It provides a coordinated program of investment credits, research grants, education reforms, and tax changes designed to make American industry more competitive. This is necessary to reverse the economic slide into unemployment, lack of growth, and trade deficits that have plagued the economy for the past six years.

The most liberal wing of the President’s party has called for stronger and more direct action. They want an incomes policy to check inflation while federal financing helps rebuild industry behind a wall of protective tariffs.

The Republicans, however, decry even the modest, graduated tax increases in the President’s program. They want tax cuts and more open market. They say if federal money has to be injected into the economy, let it through defence spending.

Both these alternatives ignore the unique nature of the economic problem before us. It is not simply a matter of markets or financing. The new technology allows vastly increased production for those able to master it. But it also threatens those who fail to adopt it with permanent second-class citizenship in the world economy. If an industry cannot lever itself up to the leading stage of technological advances, then it will not be able to compete effectively. If it cannot do this, no amount of government protectionism or access to foreign markets can keep it profitable for long. Without the profits and experience of technological excellence to reinvest, that industry can only fall still further behind its foreign competitors.

So the crux is the technology and that is where the President’s program focused. The danger is not that a plan will not be passed, it is that the ideologues of right and left will distort the bill with amendments that will blur its focus on technology. The economic restructuring plan should be passed intact. If we fail to restructure our economy now, we may not get a second chance.

1. The focus of the President’s program is on

[A] investment.

[B] economy.

[C] technology.

[D] tax.

2. What is the requirement of the most liberal wing of the Democratic-party?

[A] They want a more direct action.

[B] They want an incomes policy to check inflation.

[C] They want to rebuild industry.

[D] They want a wall of protective tariffs.

3. What is the editor’s attitude?

[A] support.

[B] distaste.

[C] Disapproval.

[D] Compromise.

4. The danger to the plan lies in

[A] the two parties’ objection.

[B] different idea of the two parties about the plan.

[C] its passage.

[D] distortion.

5. The passage is

[A] a review.

[B] a preface.

[C] a advertisement.

[D] an editorial.

Vocabulary

1. reverse 逆转

2. slide 滑坡

3. plague 瘟疫;折磨,困扰

4. tariff 关税

5. decry 谴责,诋毁

6. lever 杠杆;用杠杆撬动

7. crux 症结

8. ideologue 空想家,思想家

9. intact 原封不动的,完整无损的

10. investment credit 投资信贷

11. research grant 研究基金

难句译注

1. This is necessary to reverse the economic slide into unemployment, lack of growth, and trade deficits that have plagued the economy for the past six years.

【参考译文】这对扭转经济滑坡;滑到失业高,增长少和已经困扰经济达6年之久贸易赤字来说是必要的。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一则有关总统向国会提交的经济计划评论。作者采用对比手法来突出其计划之正确性,第一段就讲了计划的涉及面:投资、研究、教育、税收等,目的是制止经济滑坡,提高美国工业竞争力。

第二、三两段叙述了计划遭两方面的反对,总统党内的右翼要求更强硬,更直接的行动,而共和党对即使逐渐稍稍提高一点税收都予以谴责。

第四段提出两者都忽略我们面临经济问题的独特性质。它不是市场或财政问题。掌握新技术的人大量增产,而不能采用新技术的人面临在世界经济中成为二等公民的危险。工业不能达到先进水平,就不能有效地竞争,那么任何?;ぶ饕寤蚪胪夤谐《疾荒艹て谧嘈?。没有技术优势的经验和利润的再投资,工业经济只能依然落后于外国竞争对手。

最后一段点出总统计划的要点就是工艺技术。作者提出:要求全面通过这一重新建设计划。如果我们不能重建经济,我们可能不会有第二次机会。

答案详解

1. C 工艺技术。最后一段第一句“问题的症结就在于工艺技术,这就是总统计划的要点所在?!钡谒亩危骸岸哉莆招录际醯娜死此?,新技术使他们大大增产,而新技术对不能掌握它的人来说,在世界经济中他们面临沦为永久性的二等公民的危险。如果不能做到这一点,那么任何政府?;ぶ饕?,进入国际市场都不能有效地竞争。如果不能有技术优势的利润和经验再投资,工业只能进一步落后于国外竞争对手?!闭庑┒妓得髯芡臣苹闹氐阍俟ひ占际?。

A.投资。D.税收。只是总统计划的涉及面。B.经济。太笼统了。

2. A 更直接行动。第二段“总统的党内几段自由翼要求更强硬、更直接行动。他们要求用收入(税收)政策来制止通货膨胀;联邦财政在关税?;は?,帮助重建工业?!?/p>

B.他们需要制止通货膨胀。C.重建工业。D.?;す厮扒?。都只是他们要求中的不分内容,不完整。

3. A支持。第四、五段集中了评论者的观点,支持的理由和论点。

B.厌恶。C.不赞成。D.调和妥协。

4. D歪曲。最后一段第二句:“其危险不在于计划将不被通过,而在于左和右的思想理论家们用修正案来歪曲提案,使计划要点蒙尘模糊不清,经济重建计划应原封不动地通过?!闭馐亲髡叩奶?,也是他所担心之处。

A.两党的反对。B.两党对计划的不同看法。C.它的通过。

5. D 社论。

A.评论。社论也是评论的一种,但它是报纸主编所撰,常常是有关国内外大事评论。B.前言。C.广告。

Passage Eighteen (Strictly Ban smoking)

If you smoke and you still don’t believe that there’s a definite link between smoking and bronchial troubles, heart disease and lung cancer, then you are certainly deceiving yourself. No one will accuse you of hypocrisy. Let us just say that you are suffering from a bad case of wishful thinking. This needn’t make you too uncomfortable because you are in good company. Whenever the subject of smoking and health is raised, the governments of most countries hear no evil, see no evil and smell no evil. Admittedly, a few governments have taken timid measures. In Britain for instance, cigarette advertising has been banned on television. The conscience of the nation is appeased, while the population continues to puff its way to smoky, cancerous death.

You don’t have to look very far to find out why the official reactions to medical findings have been so lukewarm. The answer is simply money. Tobacco is a wonderful commodity to tax. It’s almost like a tax on our daily bread. In tax revenue alone, the government of Britain collects enough from smokers to pay for its entire educational facilities. So while the authorities point out ever so discreetly that smoking may, conceivable, be harmful, it doesn’t do to shout too loudly about it.

This is surely the most short-sighted policy you could imagine. While money is eagerly collected in vast sums with one hand, it is paid out in increasingly vaster sums with the other. Enormous amounts are spent on cancer research and on efforts to cure people suffering from the disease. Countless valuable lives are lost. In the long run, there is no doubt that everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether.

Of course, we are not ready for such a drastic action. But if the governments of the world were honestly concerned about the welfare of their peoples, you’d think they’d conduct aggressive anti-smoking campaigns. Far from it! The tobacco industry is allowed to spend staggering sums on advertising. Its advertising is as insidious as it is dishonest. We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing up their lungs early in the morning. That would never do. The advertisement always depict virile, clean-shaven young men. They suggest it is manly to smoke, even positively healthy! Smoking is associated with the great open-air life, with beautiful girls, true love and togetherness. What utter nonsense!

For a start, governments could begin by banning all cigarette and tobacco advertising and should then conduct anti-smoking advertising campaigns of their own. Smoking should be banned in all public places like theatres, cinemas and restaurants. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dire consequences of taking up the habit. A horrific warning – say, a picture of a death’s head – should be included in every packet of cigarettes that is sold. As individuals, we are certainly weak, but if governments acted honestly and courageously, they could protect us from ourselves.

1. Why do a few governments take timid measures toward smoking?

[A] because they are afraid of people.

[B] Because diseases cost a lot.

[C] Because they are afraid of the cutting down of their revenue.

[D] Because they are afraid of manufacturers.

2. The tone of this passage is

[A] critical.

[B] ironical.

[C] distaste.

[D] amusing.

3. What does the sentence “because you are in good company” mean?

[A] you are backed by the government.

[B] You are not alone.

[C] You have good colleagues.

[D] Governments are blind to evils of smoking too.

4. What is the best title of this passage?

[A] World Governments should conduct serious campaigns against smoking.

[B] World governments take timid measures against smoking.

[C] smoking is the most important source of income to many countries.

[D] tobacco industry spends a large sum of money on medical research.

Vocabulary

1. a wishful thinking 根据愿望的想法,不顾事实的想法

2. puff 喷

puff its way to 一路吞云吐雾走向(指抽烟抽到死)

3. lukewarm 冷淡/漠然

4. insidious 阴险的,狡猾的

5. virile 年富力强的

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇“要求政府禁烟”的论说文,采用因果对比手法。先以讽刺口吻指出政府对禁烟的态度――软弱无力。然后点明软弱的原因――大量税收。再以抽烟大严重后果,机器所花去的钱说明得不偿失。而烟草工业广告泛滥,毒化人们。从而提出政府应从禁止烟广告作起。

答案详解

1. C 因为他们害怕收入减少。答案见第二段?!澳悴挥每吹煤茉毒湍芊⑾治裁垂俜蕉砸窖С晒姆从θ绱死涞?,答案就是钱。烟草是征税的最奇妙的商品,几乎就像日用面包的税收。光烟草税收一项,英国政府就从抽烟人身上征到足以支付整个教育措施的费用。所以在当局那么谨慎地指出吸烟有害时,可以想象,喊叫得太响时不行的?!?/p>

A.他们害怕人民。D.他们害怕厂商。文中没有。B.疾病花费很大和软弱无力的禁烟措施有关。不是花费大而采取弱政策。

2. B 讽刺语气。特别表现在第一段、第四段。

A.批评语气,整篇文章都在批评,这不是什么语气问题。这里时以讽刺的口吻加以批评政府软弱的禁烟政策。C.厌恶。D.有趣。

3. D 政府对吸烟的恶果也是视而不见。

A.政府支持。太明朗化。B.你不是单独一人。和C.你有好同事,都是似是而非的答案。这可以上下文说明,第一段:“假如你吸烟,依然认为吸烟和支气管炎、心脏病、肺癌等毫无关系,那你是自欺欺人??擅挥腥嘶崴的阈槲?。我们可以说你是患有一厢情愿病。这你无需太难受,因为你有好伙伴。每当提出吸烟和健康有关的问题时,大多数国家的政府对其恶果视而不见、听而不闻、嗅而不觉?!?/p>

4. A 世界各国政府应该开展眼里的禁烟运动。因为前面四段都是现象:⑴政策软弱。如英国政府只在电视上禁止烟草广告以高位人们的良知。另一方面人民继续一路吞云吐雾走到癌症死亡。⑵讲烟草的税收高,所以不严禁。⑶这项政策的后果是疾病花费大于烟草税收。⑷烟草广告泛滥毒害人。唯一解救的办法就是禁烟。最后一段是结论,也是画龙点睛的主题和标题?!白魑鸩?,政府可以从禁止烟草广告开始,然后应开展抵制吸烟的广告运动。一切公共场合,如戏院、电影院、返点等应禁止吸烟。应竭尽全力告诫青年,尤其是告诫他们染上恶习的严重后果。在零卖的每包烟盒上应有一令人胆战心惊的警告:例如,一幅骷髅头画像。作为个人,我们力量薄弱,可是如果政府真诚地鼓舞人心的行动起来,他们可以?;の颐??!?/p>

B.世界各国政府采取禁烟政策软弱无力。C.吸烟是许多国家重要收入。这两项是不分具体内容。D.烟草工厂在医疗研究上花了大笔费用。

Passage Nineteen (TV’s Harmfulness)

Yes, but what did we use to do before there was television? How often we hear statements like this! Television hasn’t been with us all that long, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without it. Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never fond it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the goggle box. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do – anything, providing it doesn’t interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.

Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. The telly is a universal pacifier. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living-room and turning on the set. It doesn’t matter that the children will watch rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence – so long as they are quiet.

There is a limit to the amount of creative talent available in the world. Every day, television consumes vast quantities of creative work. That is why most of the programmes are so bad: it is impossible to keep pace with the demand and maintain high standards as well. When millions watch the same programmes, the whole world becomes a village, and society is reduced to the conditions which obtain in preliterate communities. We become utterly dependent on the two most primitive media of communication: pictures and the spoken word.

Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with second-hand experiences. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself. Television may be s splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization. In quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.

1. What is the biggest harm of TV?

[A] It deprives people of communication with the real world.

[B] People become lazy.

[C] People become dependent on second-hand experience.

[D] TV consumes a large part of one’s life.

2. In what way can people forget TV?

[A] Far away from civilization.

[B] To a mountain.

[C] By the sea.

[D] In quiet natural surroundings.

3. What does a mother usually do to keep her children quiet?

[A] Let them watch the set.

[B] Put them in the living room.

[C] Let them watch the rubbish.

[D] Let them alone.

4. What does the first sentence in the first paragraph mean?

[A] We found it difficult to occupy our spare time.

[B] We become addicted to TV.

[C] What we used to do is different from now.

[D] We used to enjoy civilized pleasures.

Vocabulary

1. goggle 转动眼珠,瞪眼

goggle box (英俚)电视机

2. gulp 狼吞虎咽

3. telly 电视机

4. pacifier 平息者,抚慰者。这里指平静人,使人不吱声的东西。

5. rubbishy 垃圾的,无价值的

6. sadism 施淫虐

7. glue 胶(水);粘牢

glue to the sets 和电视机粘在一起,指成了电视迷

8. hypnotic 催眠的

难句译注

1. There is a limit to the amount of creative talent available in the world.

【参考译文】世界上可以获得的创造性才能的数量是有限的。

写作方法与文章大意

这是一篇论说“电视有害”的文章。采用对比分析手法。先提出问题,对比过去和现在“过去在业余时间,我们享受文明的欢乐,有各种嗜好,招待朋友,访友,外出娱乐,在家读书听音乐……现在一切受电视支配。匆忙赶回家,狼吞虎咽地吃完饭为的是准时看某个电视节目。只要不干扰节目,吃什么都可以!一块三明治,一杯啤酒就行??词?,谁都不许说话,完全没有了过去的那种悠闲,坐在一起吃晚饭,相互交谈白天的一切?!?/p>

然后列出电视种种恶果:整个几代人成了电视迷,连孩子也不能幸免,电视消耗了大量的创造性工作,人们成为以来电视生存的人,被动娱乐,制止我们和真实世界交流。

最后结论:到大自然去,忘掉电视。

答案详解

1. A 它剥夺了人们和真实世界的联系。文章多次提到现在我们不能探亲访友,一家人互不交流,而一旦离开电视就进入了真是世界。

B. 人变懒。C. 人们变得依赖二手经验。D. 电视浪费了人生的大量时间。这三项只是危害重具体一个组成部分。

2. D 在安宁的大自然的怀抱中。答案在最后一段最后一句“在安详宁静的大自然环境中,我们很快发现我们对催眠的电视暴君连想都不怎么想!”

A. 远离文明。B.去山上。C.在海边。

3. A 叫他们看电视。这在第二段第三句起“电视是一个万能安静器。母亲为使孩子们安静,就把他们放在起居室内,打开电视看。这是现在最权威的一招。至于孩子们看的使垃圾般的商业广告,还是施淫虐或暴力片都无关紧要,只要他们安静不闹?!?/p>

B.把他们搁在起居室。C.让他们看垃圾片。都是其中的具体一部分。D.让他们呆着。没有提到。

4. B 我们都成了电视迷。第一句“是的,可是没有电视之前,我们常干些什么?”这说明人们已经习惯于电视,以来电视,到了没有电视怎么办的境地。不知道没有电视前的情况。第二段“整个几代人越来越迷上了电视,饭不吃,家务不干,不睡觉?!笨梢运嫡恼露济栊戳巳嗣嵌缘缡用粤?,依赖。第一句话是引言。所以B对。

A. 难以消遣。只是人们的一种感受。C.过去和现在不同。是一种对比,并没有点出这句话的真正内涵。D.享受文明欢乐。是过去所作的一个具体例子。

Passage Twenty (The Law to Keep the Oil Industry under Control)

The Norwegian Government is doing its best to keep the oil industry under control. A new law limits exploration to an area south of the southern end of the long coastline; production limits have been laid down (though these have already been raised); and oil companies have not been allowed to employ more than a limited number of foreign workers. But the oil industry has a way of getting over such problems, and few people believe that the Government will be able to hold things back for long. As on Norwegian politician said last week: “We will soon be changed beyond all recognition.”

Ever since the war, the Government has been carrying out a programme of development in the area north of the Arctic Circle. During the past few years this programme has had a great deal of success: Tromso has been built up into a local capital with a university, a large hospital and a healthy industry. But the oil industry has already started to draw people south, and within a few years the whole northern policy could be in ruins.

The effects of the oil industry would not be limited to the north, however. With nearly 100 percent employment, everyone can see a situation developing in which the service industries and the tourist industry will lose more of their workers to the oil industry. Some smaller industries might even disappear altogether when it becomes cheaper to buy goods from abroad.

The real argument over oil is its threat to the Norwegian way of life. Farmers and fishermen do not make up most of the population, but they are an important part of it, because Norwegians see in them many of the qualities that they regard with pride as essentially Norwegian. And it is the farmers and the fishermen who are most critical of the oil industry because of the damage that it might cause to the countryside and to the sea.

1. The Norwegian Government would prefer the oil industry to

[A] provide more jobs for foreign workers.

[B] slow down the rate of its development.

[C] sell the oil it is producing abroad.

[D] develop more quickly than at present.

2. The Norwegian Government has tried to

[A] encourage the oil companies to discover new oil sources.

[B] prevent oil companies employing people from northern Norway.

[C] help the oil companies solve many of their problems.

[D] keep the oil industry to something near its present size.

3. According to the passage, the oil industry might lead northern Norway to

[A] the development of industry.

[B] a growth in population.

[C] the failure of the development programme.

[D] the development of new towns.

4. In the south, one effect to the development of the oil industry might be

[A] a large reduction on unemployment.

[B] a growth in the tourist industry.

[C] a reduction in the number of existing industries.

[D] the development of a number of service industries.

5. Norwegian farmers and fishermen have an important influence because

[A] they form such a large part of Norwegian ideal.

[B] their lives and values represent the Norwegian ideal.

[C] their work is so useful to the rest of Norwegian society.

[D] they regard oil as a threat to the Norwegian way of life.

Vocabulary

1. Norwegian 挪威的;挪威人

2. coastline 海岸线

3. recognition 承认;认识;赞赏

4. countryside 乡下;乡民

难句译注

1. A new law limits exploration to an area south of the southern end of the long coastline; production limits have been laid down (though these have already been raised); and oil companies have not been allowed to employ more than a limited number of foreign workers.

【结构简析】用两个分号连接三句句子。

【参考译文】一条新的法律限制人们仅在长长的海岸线南端以南地区进行勘探考察;规定了石油生产限量(虽然已提高);石油公司雇佣外国工人不许超出限定额。

2. With nearly 100 percent employment, everyone can see a situation developing in which the service industries and the tourist industry will lose more of their workers to the oil industry.

【参考译文】由于将近百分之一百就业率,每个人都能看出形式发展中服务行业和旅游行业的大部分工人会跑到石油工业方面去。

3. Farmers and fishermen do not make up most of the population, but they are an important part of it, because Norwegians see in them many of the qualities that they regard with pride as essentially Norwegian.

【结构简析】复合句。在because状语从句中that是定语从句修饰qualities。

【参考译文】虽然农民和渔民并不占人口的绝大多数,可是他们都是人口的重要组成不分,因为挪威人在他们身上看到许多他们自豪地认为是挪威人的基本品质。

写作方法与文章大意

文章论述“挪威政府意欲控制石油工业”。采用对比写法。先提出政府新政策的种种限制。但石油工业有办法对付。人们都认为限制难以长久。其次讲述,从战时起,挪威政府一直执行开发北极圈北部地区的发展规划,也取得成功。但石油工业已经开始向南方进军,北方政策可能会失败。石油工业之影响超出北方,有些企业缩小,减少。最后一段是讲争论的焦点:石油对挪威生活方式构成了威胁,具体表现在对挪威理想的代表――渔民和农民的威胁。

答案详解

1. B 减慢发展速率。文章开始就阐明挪威政府正竭尽全力把石油工业控制起来,制定新法律来限制勘探开采,限制产量,限制雇佣外国工人人数。

A. 为外国工人提供更多的工作。C.卖掉正在国外生产的石油。D.比现在发展更快。

2. D 使石油工业保持在接近现在的规模。

A. 鼓励石油公司去发现新石油资源。B.制止石油公司雇佣来自挪威北方的人。C.帮助石油公司解决许多问题。

3. C 发展规划的失败。这在第二段最后一句:“可是石油工业已经开始把人们吸引到南方去,所以不出几年,整个北方政策可能成泡影?!?/p>

A.工业发展。B.人口增长。D.新城市的发展。文内没有涉及。

4. C 现存工业数的减少。第三段开始“可是石油工业的影响并不仅仅限于北方。近百分之一百的就业率,使每个人都见到发展的势头,服务业和旅游业的好多工人转向石油工业。某些较小的工业,在从国外购进货物更便宜的情况下,很可能会全部消失?!闭馑得鞴ひ凳跎?。

A.大大减少失业。B.旅游行业增长。D.许多服务公司发展。文内没有提。

5. B 他们的生活和价值代表了挪威人的理想。

A.他们组成了那么大一部分挪威理想。C.他们的工作对挪威社会的其他方面非常有用。D.他们认为石油是对挪威生活方式的威胁。最后一段第一句话:“对石油真正的争论点是它对挪威生活方式的一种威胁?!辈⒉皇撬侨衔?。

参考推荐:www.chaojixuezhang.com

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